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Author: 



MacFarlane, Charles 
Alexander 

Title: 

Principles and practice of 
direct advertising 

Place: 

Hamilton. O. 



Date 



[19161 



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MASTER NEGATIVE # 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 
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ORIGINAL MATERIAL AS FILMED - EXISTING BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD 



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MacFarlane, Charles Alexander, 1878- 

Principles and practice! of direct advertising, by 
Charlos A. MacFarlane ... f2d ed.] Hamilton, O., The 
Beckett paper company [''lOlGj 

2 p. 1., i3]-190 p. illus. 20"'". $1.00 



r. Advertising. i. Title : Direct advertising. 



Library of Congress 
Copyright A 431258 



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DIRECT 
ADVERTISING 



BY 



CHARLES A. MAC FARLANE 



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PUBLISHED BY 

THE BECKETT PAPER COMPANY 

MAKERS OF GOOD PAPER IN HAMILTON, 
OHIO, SINCE 1848 



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COPYRIGHT NOTICE 

THIS book is published in the hope that it will 
further the movement for more and better 
Direct Advertising, and in the belief that it 
will incidentally increase the sale of our BUCKEYE 
COVERS, which are used extensively for this class 
of publicity. Our interest in these papers, however, 
has not been allowed to limit either the make-up of 
the book or its potential usefulness to the adver- 
tiser. Any and all of the suggestions that are set 
forth on the following pages may be utilized freely, 
regardless of whether such utilization involves the 
use of BUCKEYE COVER or not. Only the actual 
text and illustrations are reserved. These are pro- 
tected by copyright, and may not be reproduced, 
either wholly or in part, without our express 
permission. 

Das 5 

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Copyright, 1915, 1916 
By The Beckett Paper Company 



Designed and arranged 

for The Beckett Paper Company 

by 

Charles A. MacFarlane Advertising Service, Lytton Building, Chicago 



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The paper on which this book is printed is 

BUCKEYE COVER 

Text pages, White; Plate Finish . . 20 x 25—50 and 22 x 283^—60 
Cover, Brown; Antique Finish . . . 20 x 25—65 and 22 x 28>^ — 80 
End Sheets, Brown; Antique Finish . 20 x 25—50 and 22 x 28>^ — 60 

The envelope is a 
BUCKEYE COVER ENVELOPE 

Brown, Ripple Finish 20 x 25—80 and 22 x 28>^— 100 









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O F 



DIRECT 



ADVERTISING 



PREFACE 

This book is the result of an attempt to assemble, and 
to present in handy form for ready reference, a few of the 
elementary facts and principles that the average busy man 
having to do with the preparation of advertising will find it 
helpful to know, about the several forms of "printed matter" 
that come under the general head of "Direct Advertising." 

The subject being extensive and the book brief, the 
treatment of each subject is necessarily suggestive rather 
than exhaustive. Topics that elsewhere are discussed 
through entire volumes, even libraries, are here considered 
in short chapters. There has been no opportunity for the 
detailed descriptions and illustrations that are to be found, 
by those who know where to look, in other and more thor- 
ough advertising text-books. 

This limitation, however, is also an advantage, on the 
principle that a dictionary often meets the requirements of 
an investigator better than an encyclopedia: the one tells 
you the elementary fact in a paragraph; the other either 
takes the elementary fact for granted altogether, or buries 
it in a mass of detail whence it is only to be extracted by 
the expenditure of more time and patience than the result 
may warrant. 

"A DICTIONARY OF DIRECT 
ADVERTISING" 

The present volume is a Dictionary of Direct Advertis- 
ing rather than an encyclopedia. It is not a course in 
Advertising. It will not make you an expert overnight; 
and still less, if you are already an expert, is it likely that 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

it will add materially to your equipment. If it throws an 
occasional helpful sidelight on your advertising problems, 
if it serves as an occasional source of inspiration or sugges- 
tion, it will have done all that its author and publishers have 
ventured to claim or hope for it. 

A book such as this, like any other book about Advertis- 
ing, must of necessity appeal most to those who are least 
experienced in the planning and execution of advertising 
campaigns, and of individual advertising pieces. 

It is this thought that has dictated, not only the inclusion 
of many details that the average expert will find highly 
superfluous, but also the preponderance of attention that 
has been given to what the expert might call the "mere 
mechanics " of Direct Advertising. 

To the non-expert, however, the mechanics of Direct Ad- 
vertising are not superfluous. They are, on the contrary, 
much more likely to prove useful than the discussions of 
marketing problems that form the staple of most advertis- 
ing instruction. 



"ADVERTISING IS SELLING" 

Advertising is simply a form of selling, and as most 
prospective advertisers already know something about 
selling, so they also know something about advertising. As 
a rule they have a pretty good idea as to what should be 
said about their product, and to whom it should be said. 

They are less likely to be skilled in the art of " saying 
their say" effectively in Letters, Circulars, Catalogues, 
Booklets, etc., and in this respect, if in no other, the present 
compilation should prove helpful.. 



OF. DIRECT ADVERTISING 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

OF 

DIRECT ADVERTISING 

DIRECT ADVERTISING, as the term is now com- 
monly used and understood, is any kind of advertising that 
is mailed or otherwise sent or given, by or for an advertiser, 
direct to specific firms or individuals, instead of being pub- 
lished or directed or distributed to the public generally. 

Catalogues, Booklets, Pamphlets, Circulars, Folders, 
Letters, whether " form " or " personal " ; Mailing Cards, 
Postal Cards, Blotters, Novelties, when designed to promote 
the sale or use of merchandise or service, are Direct Adver- 
tising. 

Sampling is Direct Advertising, when the samples are 
sent or given to specific persons or firms, but will not be 
considered in this book, except in connection with the dis- 
tribution of accompanying printed matter. 



THE IMPORTANCE OF DIRECT 
ADVERTISING 

As a manufactured product. Direct Advertising is one of 
the mainstays of an industry that ranks sixth in the United 
States in volume of business. 

American Printing establishments in 1909, as scheduled 
in the 1914 report of the census bureau, numbered 31,445. 
They represented an investment in plants, machinery and 
other equipment of $588,345,708, employed 388,466 people 
at an annual wage of $268,086,431, and turned out $737,876,- 
087 worth of printing. Over one hundred million dollars of 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

this amount, it is estimated by " Printers' Ink," was paid 
for Direct Advertising. 

Large as is the amount of money annually invested in 
Direct Advertising, however, it sinks into insignificance 
when compared with the dividends that are returned by the 
investment — the amount of money that ultimately changes 
hands as a result of the distribution of the advertising. 

Excluding Newspapers and Periodicals, which are only 
incidentally advertising mediums, Direct Advertising prob^ 
ably represents a greater capital investment, gives employ- 
ment to more people, moves more goods, has a more vital 
and vitalizing effect on trade, than any other one agency 
of business promotion. 



STRICTLY " GENERAL" CAMPAIGNS 

EXCEPTIONAL 

Few selling campaigns of importance can be conducted 
without the aid of Direct Advertising; while of many it is 
the chief, and sometimes the sole, motive power. 

The great mail-order houses are living and unanswer- 
able testimonials to its efficiency. 

The two in Chicago alone mail literally carloads of 
Direct Advertising each month; and it brings back cash 
mail orders running into millions of dollars in the same 
period. 

Many of the mail-order catalogues are sent out in 
response to inquiries originated by advertisements in maga- 
zines or newspapers, but this does not affect the status or 
the importance of the Direct Advertising. The General 
Advertising provides an outlet for the Direct Advertising; 
the Direct Advertising sells the goods. 






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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



DIRECT ADVERTISING THE RESULT 
OF SPECIALIZATION 

The enormous growth of Direct Advertising, as a selling 
force distinct from General Advertising, is a logical and 
inevitable result of the increasing specialization which in 
our time is the outstanding feature of all branches of indus- 
trial activity and professional service. 

When the Philadelphia merchant of a hundred years 
ago, to go no farther back, " begged to announce " in the 
public prints of his day that he had just received a new 
consignment of merchandise from abroad (thereby estab- 
lishing a form of introduction that has served the tailoring 
fraternity faithfully right down to the present day), he was 
well advised in addressing his appeal to the public gen- 
erally, for it was the public generally, and not merely a 
section of it, that was interested in his wares. 

The consignment advertised consisted mainly of articles 
of food and apparel, of household utilities and implements 
that were in common use by all the people. 

Every reader of every copy of the publication in which 
the advertisement appeared was a possible customer. 

To-day, however, the social and industrial organization 
of the civilized world is complex where it was then com- 
paratively simple, and the articles of merchandise that can 
now be sold economically by advertising to the general 
public are the exception rather than the rule. 

The advertiser, moreover, instead of being as formerly 
a merchant selling many articles, some of which everyone 
can use, is frequently a manufacturer making only a single 
article or line of similar articles which can be purchased by 
only a restricted class. 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



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The Ridgely Trimmer Ox, Sprin«fieid, Ohio, u. s. A. 

A direct advertisement that brought back many times its cost in cash 
orders. Each circular was a sheet of 20 by 25 Plate-finish BUCKEYE 
COVER, with order blank, coin-card and post-card " request for cata- 
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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



LOCATING THE STOVE MARKET 

The stove manufacturer, to take an instance at random, 
can not sell his stoves to people who live in steam-heated 
apartments, and this means that it will do him no good to 
advertise in publications that are largely read by such 
people. 

Whatever method of advertising he adopts, he must 
place his announcements where the majority of them will 
be seen, or where they will at least have a chance of being 
seen, by people who use stoves. Rural newspapers and 
farm papers are largely used by such advertisers. 

SELLING ELECTRIC FLATIRONS 

A manufacturer of electric flatirons, on the other hand, 
would soon go out of business if he were to confine his 
advertising to farm papers, or even spend any considerable 
portion of his appropriation in such publications. He must 
look for his customers in the cities and towns where there 
are electric-service stations. 

PROBLEM OF THE LOCAL DRUGGIST 

The neighborhood druggist, under ordinary circum- 
stances, can not expect to attract patrons to his store from 
remote parts of the city. He must sell to the people in his 
immediate neighborhood, or at least in his section of the 
city. He therefore can not advertise profitably in the local 
daily newspaper, for only a small percentage of the readers 
of the paper would be people to whom he could expect to 
sell. While he could reach his possible customers through 
newspaper advertising, therefore, the cost would be so high 
(on account of the " waste circulation ") that it could not 
possibly pay him. 

Each advertiser, to sell profitably, must reach effec- 
tively the people who are in a position to buy or use or 
recommend whatever he may have to offer for sale ; and for 

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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

a multitude of articles of more or less restricted sale and 
use, general announcements to the public no longer suffice. 

Technical and class publications meet the needs of some 
advertisers, so far as those needs can be met by periodical 
advertising. But such publications represent only a few of 
the classifications into which buyers can be divided. In the 
majority of cases, Direct Advertising is the only econom- 
ical method. 

SELLING THE GOODS BEFORE 
SHOWING THEM 

Again, it is to be remembered that while practically all 
articles of merchandise were formerly sold over the counter, 
this is not so commonly the case to-day. All articles that 
are sent to the consumer by express or freight or parcel 
post, and many articles that are PASSED OUT over the 
counter, are SOLD before the customer sees them, usually 
through advertising. 

This means, of course, that advertising is required to do 
a great deal more now than formerly, and in many cases a 
great deal more than could be accomplished through Gen- 
eral Advertising alone. 

If an article of general consumption is low in price, and 
requires no extended arguments or description to induce 
people to use it, it can be, and usually is, sold by General 
Advertising alone. 

If the article is complicated, however, or is expensive, or 
requires extended demonstration or selling effort, often it 
can not be sold profitably through advertising in general 
mediums alone, even if every reader is a possible purchaser. 
This is because of the physical limitations of General Adver- 
tising. 

Under such circumstances the usual procedure is to 
stimulate interest or curiosity through the medium of gen- 
eral advertising, using Direct Advertising, supplemented in 
some cases by personal salesmanship, to complete the sale. 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

DIRECT ADVERTISING 
AND GENERAL ADVERTISING 

COMPARED 

One of the comparisons frequently met with in discus- 
sions of the merits of General as against Direct Advertising, 
is concerned with the cost of " reaching " a given number of 
people. 

To " reach " a thousand persons by Direct Advertising, 
it is pointed out, costs ten dollars for postage alone; 
whereas a page of space in a magazine of general circula- 
tion costs, in round figures, one dollar per thousand of 
circulation — a difference of ten to one in favor of General 
Advertising. 

When this comparison is examined closely, however, it 
is seen to be misleading, for the reason that it is based on 
two arbitrary quantities — the cost of postage in one case 
and of space in the other — which have no real relation to 
each other. 

The comparison becomes illuminating only when all of 
the essential factors are taken into consideration — the 
character, manufacturing cost and selling price of the article 
to be advertised, the kind and number and geographical 
distribution of the people to whom it is to be advertised, 
the amount of space necessary to tell the selling story ade- 
quately, and the results that can be produced or reasonably 
expected by each method. 



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REACHING " THE BUSINESS MAN 



Suppose, for example, that the article is one that appeals 
especially to business men, and a choice is to be made 
between a circular and a page in a business man's magazine. 

Here the comparison is not quite the same as before; 
for while the postage alone on the circular is still ten dol- 
lars, the cost of the space in the business man's magazine is 

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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

just double the cost of the same space in a magazine of 
general circulation. The business magazine charges two 
dollars per page per thousand, instead of one, because it is 
read by a special class of people, and is therefore a more 
valuable medium for advertisers who wish to appeal to that 
class. 



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This, however, is a very moderate rate for a " class 
publication. The more restricted the classification, the 
higher the rate that must be paid. 



THE AD. MAN COSTS MORE 

If we wish to reach advertising men exclusively, the rate 
per page in the leading advertising journal will be in the 
neighborhood of five dollars per thousand. 

If we wish to appeal exclusively to printers and those 
interested in printing, the rate per page per thousand in the 
leading printing trade publications will run as high as ten 
dollars. 

Suppose then that we have an article to sell to printers 
that can not be adequately described in one or two or three 
pages. If four pages are used, the cost of the one adver- 
tisement will be $40 per thousand of circulation. 

All this while, however, the cost of mailing our circular 
has remained stationary at ten dollars per thousand, leaving 
a margin of $30 per thousand for paper and printing.* 

Four-page and even eight- and ten-page advertisements 
are not uncommon in class publications; and since the 
equivalent of any of these advertisements, bulk alone con- 
sidered, can be sent through the mails under one-cent post- 
age, it will readily be seen that the mere cost of " reaching " 
a given number of prospects by one method or the other is 
of no significance. 

*'A very elaborate circular, mailable forone cent, can be manufactured 
in quantities for considerably less than $30 per thousand. 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

WHY PUBLISHERS USE DIRECT 
ADVERTISING 

A conclusive exposition of the fallacy of the "cost of 
reaching the consumer" comparison, and a striking testi- 
monial to the efficacy of Direct Advertising, is found in the 
fact that it is used extensively by publishers of magazines 
and newspapers, as a means of selling, or helping to sell, 
their space to advertisers. 

Publishers mail Booklets, Circulars, Letters, Cards, etc., 
to advertisers and advertising agencies because these me- 
diums offer them the best opportunity to place their selling 
arguments before the right people, in the most effective 
form, and at minimum cost. 

This does not mean that Direct Advertising as a form of 
publicity is superior to newspaper advertising, any more 
than it means it is superior to Magazine Advertising, or 
Street Car Advertising, or Electric Signs, or Billboards. 

What it does mean, and what it proves, is that Direct 
Advertising, like each of the forms of General Advertising, 
is better for some purposes than any other form of pub- 
licity, and that this fact is both fully recognized and con- 
stantly utilized by those people of all others who are most 
interested in the sale and use of General Advertising. 

HOW PUBLISHERS SELL THEIR 

SPACE 

I have before me as I write, an extensive assortment of 
Direct Advertisements bearing the imprints of prominent 
publishers in all parts of the country. 

Even a casual inspection of these pieces shows that in 
each instance Direct Advertising was resorted to, not only 
as a means of reaching a small list of people economically, 
but also as a means of reaching them MORE EFFEC- 
TIVELY than would have been possible through the use 

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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

of any reasonable amount of space in a magazine or news- 
paper. 

One large 48-page booklet is made up of arguments and 
illustrations designed to impress advertisers and their repre- 
sentatives with the value of page advertisements in a great 
Chicago newspaper. 

A page advertisement in this paper, under proper condi- 
tions, is an excellent investment. But the 48-page booklet, 
as a means of selling space for such page advertisements, 
was unquestionably a better investment. 

Another and still larger book consists of 64 pages, and 
is bound substantially in boards, besides being beautifully 
printed on a fine grade of paper. It was mailed to a limited 
number of advertisers and advertising agencies, and its sole 
purpose is to sell space, or to promote the more effective 
use of space, which comes to the same thing, in a well- 
known business man's magazine. 

WHY DIRECT ADVERTISING IS MORE 

ECONOMICAL 

The cost of these two books, per thousand, was a great 
deal more than it would have cost to print the same text 
and illustrations in a thousand copies of each of the publica- 
tions represented. But the cost of reaching each " pros- 
pect " was infinitely less, because all waste circulation was 
eliminated, every copy going direct to an actual or potential 
advertiser, or to some one known to be professionally inter- 
ested in the designing, writing and placing of advertise- 
ments. 

These two examples, selected at random from a multi- 
tude of similar ones, are introduced here, not to belittle 
General Advertising as compared with Direct Advertising, 
but simply to emphasize the interdependence of the two 
forms of publicity. 

The producers of Direct Advertising use General Adver- 
tsing in promoting their businesses, just as the producers 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 




1 



A few Direct Advertisements sent out by representative publishers 
of general advertising mediums. Many of these were printed on 
BUCKEYE COVER. 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

of General Advertising use Direct Advertising in promoting 
theirs. The publishers of this book, whose product is used 
mainly in the production of Direct Advertising, are staunch 
believers in General Advertising. They think highly of it, 
and they use it constantly and profitably. 

General Advertising, however, is the older, the more 
highly organized industry. It is more spectacular; has 
greater prestige. It has therefore not seemed to the writer 
beside the point, in a book devoted to Direct Advertising, 
to call attention to the esteem in which it is held and the 
frequency with which it is used by those whose interest is 
primarily in the other, and occasionally competitive form 
of publicity. 



MECHANICAL ADVANTAGES OF 
DIRECT ADVERTISING 

In addition to its directness and its economy, Direct 
Advertising, by reason of its almost unlimited flexibility, 
offers many advantages which are not available to those 
advertisers who use General Advertising exclusively. 

The Direct Advertiser is hampered by no restrictions. 
He can make his advertisement as large as can be con- 
veniently handled and read. He can print it in any and as 
many colors as he likes, and on any paper he likes. 

The size of the space, the kind of illustrations, the char- 
acter and color of the printing, are determined, not by pub- 
lishing conditions, but by the advertiser's individual require- 
ments. 

If the article has a great deal of detail, making it desir- 
able to use, say, a 200-line half tone screen, that screen can 
be used, just as readily as the 133 to 150 required by the 
magazines : it is necessary only to use the proper paper and 
printing. 

If extra colors are necessary, they can be added, without 
adding materially to the cost of the advertisement. 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



CLINCHING THE SALE 

Most important of all, the Direct Advertisement can be 
made a far more complete selling effort than is ever possible 
in General Advertising. The Direct Advertisement " carries 
on " from the point where General Advertising leaves off. 
It can do a great deal more than merely excite interest and 
turn the interest into a resolve to purchase. It can clinch 
the sale. It can, and does, " bring home the bacon.' 



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This is because the Direct Advertisement, unlike the 
General Advertisement, is not confined to pictures and 
descriptions and arguments relating to the article or service 
advertised — it can include also the facilities for ordering, as 
well as a great variety of separate advertisements, remind- 
ers, etc., that are entirely out of the question when other 
forms of publicity are used. 

MAKING IT EASY TO ORDER 

Order blanks, postal cards, coin cards, samples of mer- 
chandise, price lists, discount sheets, lists of dealers, testi- 
monial booklets, blotters, novelties — any and all of these 
can be made a part of, or can be mailed with, any Direct 
Advertisement, and without affecting the rate of postage, 
except in the case of samples or other enclosures classed by 
the postofifice department as " merchandise." 



SECRECY OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

A feature of Direct Advertising that is often of great 
advantage to the advertiser is its comparative secrecy. 

Announcements in Newspapers and Magazines, in Street 
Cars and on Billboards, are read by your competitors, both 
actual and potential, as well as by the people whose patron- 
age you are seeking. 

Direct Advertisements, on the other hand, are much less 
likely to come to the attention of others than those to whom 

19 



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life! 

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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

they are specifically addressed ; and even if individual mail- 
ing pieces do come to the attention of a competitor, they 
teU him little or nothing concerning the plan and scope of 
the campaign. 

It is impossible to tell, by looking at a copy of a Cata- 
logue, Booklet, Circular or Letter how many copies were 
distributed, or where and when and to whom they were 
distributed; nor is it possible to tell by what other pieces 
they were preceded and followed, whereas the extent and 
character of any " General " campaign may be readily ascer- 
tained by any one who is sufficiently interested to take the 
trouble. 

This difference between secrecy and publicity is very 
often the difference between success and failure, or between 
a great and a limited success. Direct Advertising giving the 
advertiser an opportunity to enjoy a monopoly in his field, 
where General Advertising would be reasonably certain to 
attract destructive competition. 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



PLANNING THE CAMPAIGN 

Before an advertising campaign or even a single adver- 
tisement can be planned intelligently, it is necessary that 
the problem be analyzed. Every line of business, every 
individual selling venture, has its peculiarities, and it is only 
by carefully ascertaining these and being guided by them 
that the advertising can be made to yield adequate returns. 

It is, of course, possible to write advertisements about a 
watch, or a piano, or a food product by merely seeing and 
appraising the article itself; it may even be done from a 
picture or description. Advertising based on such meagre 
data, however, can be successful only by accident. 

To advertise successfully, you must know WHOM you 
are selling as well as WHAT you are selling. The adver- 
tising must fit the market as well as the product. Articles 
are not bought because of their intrinsic worth and 
attractiveness alone. The characters and habits of the pur- 
chasers have a great deal to do with it, and these in turn 
may be affected by geographical location, occupation, age, 
sex, buying capacity, social standing, religious and fraternal 
affiliations, business rating and reputation, and many other 
factors. 

It is also important to know the particulars concerning 
the competition, if any, that the advertised article or service 
must meet, since this usually has an important bearing on 
the character of the advertising. 

These things are true of all methods of advertising, but 
they are more applicable to Direct Advertising than to any 
other kind, for the reason that the Direct Advertiser has a 
greater opportunity, and by the same token has a greater 
need, to make his advertising fit his selling problem. 

When you advertise in a publication, your advertisement 
goes to the readers of that publication, whoever and where- 
ever they may happen to be. When you send out Direct 
Advertisements, they go to THE PEOPLE YOU SELECT, 

21 



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PRIN C IPLES AND PRACTICE 

and to those people only. It is therefore of the utmost 
importance that you select the right people, as well as the 
right method of appealing to them. 



SELECTING YOUR "PROSPECTS 



?> 



The word " prospect " as applied to advertising is prob- 
ably a contraction of the phrase "prospective customer," but 
by common usage it has come to have a considerably 
broader significance. It does not mean prospective cus- 
tomers alone. It means anyone to whom an advertising 
appeal can be made profitably, and this may include several 
classes of people besides prospective customers. 

Wholesalers and retailers and their salespeople, agents 
and canvassers, employees of prospective customers, your 
own salesmen — any or all of these may be "prospects" 
worthy of your advertising efforts, depending, of course, 
upon the nature of the product and the method of its dis- 
tribution. 

DIRECT ADVERTISING AND 
INDIRECT SELLING 

Many products are advertised successfully to people 
who do not commonly buy them, except as incidental parts 
of other products. Automobile parts and equipment, such 
as axles, bearings, springs, batteries, ignition systems, etc., 
are examples. All of these are advertised to automobile 
buyers, notwithstanding most of them are SOLD only to 
automobile manufacturers. 

Other products are advertised to people who neither buy 
nor use them, but who, in their professional capacities, may 
influence the sale of the articles. Building materials and 
equipment are advertised, not only to contractors and 
ovimers, but to architects and engineers as well. 

Occasionally, too, a manufacturer finds it profitable to 
advertise something that he does not sell, or something that 

22 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISIN G 

he handles only as a side line, in order to stimulate the sale 
of his product. The advantages of concrete construction 
are advertised as a means of stimulating the sale and use 
of cement. The Standard Oil Company sells lamps and 
oil stoves in order to enlarge the market for kerosene. 
Central stations often sell electrical devices at or near cost, 
depending for their profit on the increased " off-peak " load, 
and so on. 

Obvious as these advertising " indirections " may seem 
to be, it is only recently that the Fleischmann Yeast Com- 
pany undertook, and with very satisfactory results so far 
as has been reported, to increase the sale of its product by 
distributing BREAD RECIPE BOOKS to housewives. 
No housewife can be induced to use two cakes of yeast in 
a batch of bread that requires only one; but if she can be 
induced to use MORE BREAD, the result is the same. 

From even a casual consideration of these examples, it 
is easy to see the advantage of using the imagination when 
planning an advertising campaign — the advantage of 
inquiring whether the greatest opportunities for profitable 
business promotion may not lay outside, rather than inside, 
the regular channels of trade. 

It goes without saying, of course, that not every manu- 
facturer can get profitable results by advertising a machine 
part to the people who buy the completed machine, or by 
advertising a complete product in order to sell a raw mate- 
rial, but the possibility of doing one or the other of these 
things should at least have due consideration. 

If you refrain from " indirect " Direct Advertising, in 
other words, let it be for a good reason. Being satisfied 
that it would not pay is a good reason. Overlooking the 
opportunity is a poor one. 

PREPARING THE MAILING LIST 

The basis of every Direct Advertising campaign is the 
Mailing List, containing the names and addresses of the 
firms and individuals to whom the advertisements are to be 

23 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

sent. (They are not always mailed, hence the term " mail- 
ing list " is to be regarded as one of convenience rather than 
of literal accuracy.) 

If the Direct Advertising campaign is supplemental to 
a General campaign, the source of the names is usually the 
advertisements printed in periodicals, these advertisements 
producing responses in the form of orders, requests for 
samples, literature, etc. Sometimes the list is made up 
partly, or even entirely, of names of customers furnished 
by dealers who distribute the commodity advertised. Cus- 
tomers already on the books of the advertiser may also be 
included. 

Where Direct Advertising alone is depended upon to 
carry the printed selling appeal, or where it is used in con- 
nection with General Advertising but the General Adver- 
itising is not depended upon to develop the mailing list, the 
names must be secured from other sources. 

The principal sources of names, other than those already 
mentioned, are the following: 

City Directories. 

Telephone Directories. 

Trade and Professional Directories. 

Commercial Agency Reference Books. 

Special Lists, compiled by concerns who make a business 
of selling them to advertisers. 



DETERMINING THE CHARACTER 

OF THE APPEAL 

The most successful advertisements are not those that 
are most cleverly worded and attractively displayed, but 
those that come nearest to making THE RIGHT APPEAL 
to the people who read them. 

Your customers do not buy your merchandise because 
it is intrinsically meritorious, or because it is good value 
for the money. They buy it because they think it to their 

24 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

own advantage to do so, and in arriving at this opinion they 
are moved by a great many considerations other than the 
quality and price of the article itself. 

Pride, Prejudice, Vanity, Acquisitiveness, Indolence, 
Love of Luxury, and many other human qualities are impor- 
tant factors in making sales, and the line of least resistance 
for the advertiser often lies through an appeal to one of 
these qualities, rather than through a descriptive exposition 
of the merits of the article advertised. 

In selling Life Insurance, for example, it is the Life 
Insurance IDEA that has to be sold. The prospect needs 
to be convinced that he needs Life Insurance, and the 
appeal here is usually made to hinge upon the desire that 
all normal men have to provide for those dependent upon 
them, or for their own old age. 

It is also essential to first have clear in your own mind, 
and then make clear to the reader of your advertising, ex- 
actly what you expect the advertising to accomplish ; or, to 
put it another way, exactly what you expect the reader of 
the advertising to DO. 

Obvious and elementary as this seems, it is a require- 
ment that is more honored in the breach than in the obser- 
vance by a great many advertisers. 

Anyone who receives much Direct Advertising can 
hardly have failed to notice the frequent failure of adver- 
tisers to make their appeals specific — their failure to so 
construct them that a clear and definite impression will be 
made upon the mind of the reader. 

The " prospect " very often is left in doubt as to whether 
his " next move " is to send money by mail for the article 
advertised, ask a dealer for it, write the advertiser for fur- 
ther information, or what not. One of the largest corpora- 
tions in America recently sent out a Direct Advertisement 
which was glaringly defective in this respect. 

A description of a product, as has already been stated, 
is not necessarily an advertisement in the modem sense of 
the term. When you have constructed what you think is an 

25 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACT ICE 

effective one, it is a good plan to show it to outsiders who 
might qualify as possible customers, or who will at least 
have an outside point of view. Find out what impression 
the advertisement makes on them. Find out particularly 
what questions they are disposed to ask when they have 
read the advertisement — then reconstruct it so that these 
questions are anticipated. 



WHAT KIND OF PIECES? 

The most important forms of Direct Advertisements are 
Catalogues and Booklets, Letters, Circulars or Folders and 
Mailing Cards. Incidental forms are Envelope Stuffers. 
Blotters, etc. 

Detailed suggestions as to the adaptability of each of 
these forms to various requirements will be found under the 
proper headings in other portions of the book. (See Index.) 



HOW MANY PIECES? 

The number of pieces of advertising matter that can be 
mailed profitably to any one person or firm, advertising the 
same article or proposition — the number of pieces that will 
yield the greatest return on the advertising investment, in 
other words -— depends upon a variety of circumstances, 
such as the nature of the article, its cost and margin of 
profit, the kind of people to whom it is to be sold, the com- 
petition of other articles, etc. 

In selling low-priced articles direct by mail, a single 
piece of advertising matter is usually all that is necessary, 
and all that will be profitable. If people do not buy such 
articles readily the first time they are offered, it rarely pays 
to make a second appeal. Two letters or circulars mailed 
to the same list of names will bring more orders than one, 
but one letter or circular mailed to double the number of 
names will usually pay better. 

26 



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i 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

The same principle holds true, to a very great extent, 
where the article offered or the proposal set forth in the 
advertisement is so attractive that it can be depended upon 
to commend itself instantly to almost anyone who is in a 
position to purchase. 

If a merchant were to offer at half price an article the 
known and established price of which was $5, such an offer 
would require no follow-up. The advertiser would be rea- 
sonably safe in assuming that a single announcement would 
bring about as many orders as were to be had. 

It would be quite otherwise, however, if the same mer- 
chant were only seeking to induce prospective purchasers 
of the $5 article to buy it at full price from him, instead of 
from some other merchant. Here there would be no obvi- 
ous advantage to the purchaser, and a single advertisement 
containing such a proposal could hardly be profitable. 

WHAT SHOULD THE PIECES COST? 

A comparison of the cost of Direct Advertising with the 
cost of General Advertising will be found in a previous 
section of this book. In this section more detailed sugges- 
tions will be given as to the actual, rather than the relative, 
cost of the more commonly used forms of Direct Advertis- 
ing. 

The preponderant item of cost, so far as the cheaper 
forms are concerned, is the postage. To give a general 
idea of the total cost of these cheaper forms, therefore, it 
is necessary to take the postage as a basis. 

Uncle Sam's minimum charge for carrying a piece of 
advertising matter is 1 cent ; and as it is a " flat " rate, no 
discounts on quantity orders, this gives us $10 per thou- 
sand as the basic cost of any ordinary advertising letter, 
circular, folder, broadside or booklet. 

Figuring on a moderate-sized list of names, say five 
thousand, so that the fixed costs such as typesetting, press 
make-ready, etc., will not be disproportionate, we find that 

27 



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P R I N C I P LES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



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a cheap circular or mailing card can be printed, addressed 
and mailed for $3 to $3.50 per thousand. These figures 
are, of course, approximate, but, when added to the postage 
they give what may be considered about the lowest prac- 
ticable cost of circularizing a list of names — $13 to $13.50 
per thousand. 

From this it is a long way to the dollar or more per copy 
that is frequently paid for a fine catalogue ; but if we exclude 
propositions requiring elaborate catalogues or booklets, 
the cost difference between the very cheap and the very 
good — the cheapest Direct Advertising that CAN be got- 
ten out and the best that NEED be — is not nearly so great 
as IS generally supposed. 

You can not get out much of a circular for $13.50 per 
thousand ; but for double this amount, representing an 
additional investment of only a little over 1 cent per name 
you can choose among a wide variety of attractive and 
effective forms. 

For $35 you can send out a thousand imitation type- 
written letters, with filled-in typewritten salutations and 
printed signatures, under FIRST-CLASS postage. One 
and one-half cents per letter, or $15 per thousand, will be 
tound a fair average allowance for letter-heads and envel- 
opes, printing, filling-in, folding, inserting and mailing. 

Given the same amount per thousand to spend on a cir- 
cular which can be mailed under l-cent postage up to a 
weight limit of two ounces, the portion available for print- 
ing and mailing will be 2i^ cents per piece, or $25 per 
thousand, and if you are getting out as many as five thou- 
sand at once, this will buy a fairly sizable and elaborate 
two-color circular or folder, in which the usual run of 
propositions could be set forth attractively and effectively 
iixpensive designs or illustrations will increase this per- 
thousand cost; increasing the edition will bring the per- 
thousand cost down again, since it is obvious that the more 
pieces you get out the lower will be the cost PER PIECE 
for art work, plates, typesetting, press make-ready, etc. 

a8 



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i 



The difference in cost between a very cheap mailing 
piece and a very good one — or, to be more exact, between 
a piece that is inadequate and another one that is entirely 
adequate for a particular purpose — is seldom enough, 
in itself, to determine the issue of a campaign. But IN ITS 
EFFECT on the character of the advertising, the differ- 
ence is often more than enough to change failure to success, 
or vice versa. 

To put it another way: If a proposed circular costs $20 
per thousand to print and mail, and it is assumed that it 
will yield profitable returns, it is unlikely that increasing 
the cost to $25 per thousand will make the returns 
unprofitable, even if they are no greater than before. The 
greater probability is that if the increased cost will make 
the circular more effective, if it makes possible a more 
attractive display and a stronger presentation of the article 
advertised, the increased returns will be more than propor- 
tionate. 

More money is thrown away on cheap advertising than 
on the expensive kind. Be sure yours is good enough. 



29 



i 



PRINCIPLES AND 



PRACTICE 



DRAWINGS— ENGRAVINGS 

Where illustrations or designs are used in Direct Adver- 
tisements, they are commonly the principal determining 
factors in the selection of the paper and printing process; 
hence a knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of the 
various kinds of engraving is invaluable to the advertiser 
who wishes to give intelligent supervision to the prepara- 
tion of his Business Literature. 

Engravings, moreover, are the least understood and the 
most frequently troublesome to the layman of any adver- 
tising material with which he has occasion to concern him- 
self. In making up this book, therefore, the subject of 
Drawings and Engravings has been allowed to take prece- 
dence over the sections devoted to the preparation and 
arrangement of the Catalogues, Booklets, Folders, etc., in 
which the engravings are to be used. 

THE HALF-TONE PROCESS 

The half-tone is the most frequently used of all engrav- 
ings, in Direct as well as in General Advertising, for the 
simple reason that as a rule it is the cheapest and most 
satisfactory means of accomplishing the multiple repre- 
sentation, on paper, of any objects, pictures or designs that 
contain gradations of color between black and white. 

A finished half-tone plate is not essentially different 
from a line engraving or a wood cut. It is a relief plate, the 
printing surface of which is made up of a pattern of lines 
and dots. The difference is in the process whereby the pat- 
tern of lines and dots, instead of being tediously and expen- 
sively produced by hand, is produced quickly and cheaply, 
by mechanical means. 

This is accomplished by photographing the picture or 
object through a " screen " which breaks up the flat colors 
of the copy so that white, for instance, is represented in the 

30 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



plate by a pattern of dots so small that the printed impres- 
sion of them is barely perceptible, while black is repre- 
sented by heavy cross lines, so close together that in the 
printed impression it has the appearance of solid color. 

Every gradation of color between these extremes is faith- 
fully rendered — light gray by small dots, v^ridely spaced; 
darker gray by larger dots, closer together ; still darker gray 
by cross lines, widely spaced; very dark gray by heavier 
lines, closer together, etc. 




Circular illustrations stand out much more strongly than 
rectangular ones of the same size. 



i 



31 






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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



ft 



MAKING "FINE" AND "COARSE 

HALF-TONES 



By using " screens " having a greater or lesser number 
of lines to the inch, fine or coarse half-tones are produced, 
according to the requirements of the work for which they are 
intended. 

If the half-tone is to be carefully printed, on good paper 
(which in this case means paper with the smoothest pos- 
sible surface), a very fine screen can be used, so that the 
lines and dots in the printed impression are hardly apparent 
to the eye, and the smallest details in the copy are faithfully 
reproduced. 

Half-tones having two hundred lines to the inch are 
sometimes used in high-grade work, and even 400-line half- 
tones have been made and printed successfully. 

It is not advisable, however, to order half-tones having 
more than 150 lines to the inch, unless upon the specific 
recommendation of the printer who is to be entrusted with 
the presswork. 

One hundred and fifty-line half-tones are the kind most 
frequently used in fine Catalogue and Booklet printing. 
They are fine enough to show all of the detail that is ordi- 
narily necessary, and at the same time are coarse enough 
not to involve undue difficulty in printing. 

Half-tones having finer screens must be printed more 
slowly and carefully, and their use in commercial literature 
seldom justifies the added cost, except in the case of objects 
having fine detail that could not otherwise be shown accu- 
rately. 

One hundred and thirty-three-line half-tones are com- 
monly used for Catalogues and Booklets which are printed 
on medium grades of coated papers, and on which the best 
presswork is not required. 

S9 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



133-line screen. 



100-line screen. 



-.1.. 







8s-Iine screen. 



SO-line screea 



The above half-tones were all made from the same photograph, the 
only difference being in the " screens " used. The 150-line screen is the 
one^ most frequently used for fine catalogue and booklet work. The 
50-Iine half-tone, used for newspaper work, shows plainly the character 
of the printing surface of the plate. 






f' ' 
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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

THE BEST " SCREEN " FOR MISCEL- 
LANEOUS USES 

One hundred and thirty-three-line half-tones will work 
well on any coated stock ; also, if carefully printed, on many 
grades of machine-finished papers. The 133-line screen is 
usually best for cuts intended for miscellaneous uses. 

For use on uncoated papers, particularly those not highly 
finished, the half-tone screen will vary from 120 lines to the 
inch, as used in this book, down to 50 or 60 lines to the inch, 
as seen in newspapers. 




Outlined half-tone from retouched 
photograph. Compare with half- 
tone from unretouched photo of 
the same subject 




Square-finished half-tone from un- 
retouched photograph. Compare 
with half-tone from retouched 
photo of the same subject. 



An exception to this is the use of finer screen half-tones 
in catalogues, such as mail-order catalogues, where because 
of the cheap paper used they do not print well, but where 
appearance is of secondary importance to the preservation 
of the details in small articles that would be lost if coarser 
screens were used. 

Half-tones may be made from any of the following 



copies 



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OF DIRECT 



ADVERTISING 



34 



HALF-TONES DIRECT FROM OBJECTS.— -A half- 
tone can be made direct from any object which is suffi- 
ciently flat — such as a folded handkerchief — to be focused 
sharply by the camera. This should not be attempted, how- 
ever, except on the advice of the engraver or other authority, 
as the objects that can be reproduced satisfactorily in this 
way are comparatively few. 

HALF-TONES FROM UNRETOUCHED PHOTO- 
GRAPHS.— If the object to be reproduced can be photo- 
graphed so that there is sufficient detail and proper color 
values in the photographic print, which should be a glossy 
print, it will serve adequately as copy for the engraver. 
The half-tone process, however, can not get more out of a 
photograph than there is in it. Usually it gets somewhat 
less, by softening the contrasts and losing the smaller 
details, and in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred the best 
results will not be obtained unless the photograph is 
retouched. 

HALF-TONES FROM RETOUCHED PHOTO- 
GRAPHS.— The modern camera is a wonderful and invalu- 
able aid to the modern advertising man, but it has its limita- 
tions. It doesn't see colors as Uie human eye sees them. 
It doesn't see well in a dim light. It can not look at a rough 
surface and tell how it will appear when polished. It can 
not sec things which are not directly in its line of vision. 
It can not make allowances for unequal lighting on the 
objects at which it is pointed. For one or another of these 
reasons, sometimes for all of them together, most commer- 
cial photographs require to be retouched before they are 
ready for the engraver. The retoucher, by painting portions 
of the photograph with opaque colors, corrects the faulty 
color values and faulty lighting, brings out the details that 
did not show clearly, and in general endeavors to furnish 
the engraver with a copy from which he can make an 
engraving that will print an accurate and veracious repre- 
sentation of the article. 

Sometimes he removes undesirable portions of the 
photograph — as the background in a picture of a piece of 

3S 



:\^)' 



PRINCIPLES AND P R A C T I C E 

machinery. Again he may add parts not shown in the 
photograph; or he may paint in imaginary features to 
embellish the picture, such as trees and shrubbery in the 
photograph of a house or factory. 




" High-light " half-tone from 
pencil drawing. 




Half-tone from wash drawing. 



HALF-TONES FROM WASH-DRAWINGS.— Many 
objects that are to be shown in advertisements can not be 
photographed satisfactorily, and where this is the case, if a 
photographic effect is wanted, it is achieved through the 
medium of a wash-drawing, which is a drawing made with 
diluted india ink or water color, so that it contains half- 
tones as well as blacks and whites. 

Even where objects can be photographed with fairly 
good results, it is sometimes cheaper to make wash- 
drawings. Pianos are a case in point. Because of the com- 
paratively small amount of detail on them, less work may be 
involved in making a wash-drawing than in retouching a 
photograph, although a piano is not a particularly difficult 
subject to photograph. 

Wash-drawings can be made from sketches or blue- 
prints, as in the case of a building to be illustrated before its 
erection; or from groups of photographs, as in the case of 

36 



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OF DIRE CT ADVERTISING 

buildings that can not be photographed in their entirety 
from any one position. 

Bird's-eye views of factories are nearly always, of neces- 
sity wash-drawings, since few commercial photographers 
are equipped to make balloon ascensions. The necessary 
photographs are made from various points on the ground, 
or from near-by buildings, and the " bird's-eye view " is 
constructed from these by means of mathematics, mixed 
with a little imagination. 

Half-tones can be made from any kind of drawing or 
painting, including water-colors and oils, except that satis- 
factory one-color half-tones can not be made from colored 
drawings or paintings, as a rule, unless the coloring has 
been done with one-color reproduction in view. 

Both half-tones and line engravings can be made from 
pen, pencil, crayon or charcoal drawings. 







■"''''^«nv4^ 



Outlined half-tones from photograph of colored cover-designs. 



37 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



it 



SPECIAL WORK ON 
HALF-TONES 

The most serious limitation of 
the half-tone process is that it can 
not reproduce either white or black. 
It renders white as very light gray, 
and black as a very dark gray, thus 
reducing the contrast and making 
the reproduction " flat " as compared 
with the original drawing or photo- 
graph. 

This defect is seldom serious, and 
ordinarily it is ignored. Where it 
is necessary or desirable to regain 
the lost contrast, it is done by " tool- 
ing" the plate after the process 
work has been completed. 

The illustrations on opposite 
page show this feature of the proc- 
ess. Both were made from the same 
copy — a wash-drawing in which the 
high lights were pure white and the 
deepest shadows were solid black. 

In the illustration on the right, 
the high lights are light gray, while 
the shadows are dark gray, neither 
being the same as the copy. 

The other illustration is a dupli- 
cate plate in which the light gray 
portions have been cut out of the 
plate, leaving the high lights white; 
and the dark gray portions have 
been burnished so they print solid 
black. 



The Half-tone Process. — The portion inside the cross lines shows 
the nearest approach to white at one end and to black at the other that 
is possible without tooling or burnishing. The ends of the plate have 
htta tooled and burnished to produce clear white and solid black. 

38 



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O F DIRECT ADVERTISING 

This "tooled" plate has far more contrast than the 
other, and has a brighter, snappier look. Many plates can 
be improved as much or more by judicious tooling, and it 
is well to know its possibilities. 





Two half-tones from flie same wash-drawing, showing the effects of 
"tooling," "burnishing" and "reversing." The cut on the left is an 
exact reproduction of the drawing, but to produce the clear whites in 
the figure it was necessary to tool out these portions of the plate by 
hand. The solid blacks were obtained by burnishing. The cut on the 
right, in reverse position, is an ordinary half-tone and lacks the brilliant 
contrasts of the other. 



A 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



This work is always charged for by the engraver, in 
addition to the cost of the plate. Ordinarily it is not done 
without specific instructions from the advertiser. 

Where you have reason to think a plate would be im- 
proved by tooling, but are not sure, you are usually safe in 
leaving it to the judgment of the engraver. It is not neces- 
sary that the tooling be done before delivery of the plate — 
it can be returned to the engraver for tooling afterward if 
desired. 



TVV^O, THREE AND FOUR COLOR 
HALF-TONE PROCESS- 
PLATES 

For best results color copy should be used. The two- 
color half-tone plates are usually employed for the repro- 
duction of illustrations or designs which contain two con- 
trasting colors. The three and four color process will 
reproduce faithfully almost any number of colors or shades 
of colors. 

With two-color process color-plates any two contrasting 
colors may be used in printing. Those most commonly 
employed are black and orange, red and green, blue and red. 

In three-color process-printing the three so-called pri- 
mary colors are employed — red, yellow and blue. 

The four-color process consists of the addition of a black 
plate to the three primary colors. The use of four-color 
process-plates is confined principally to the reproduction of 
subjects requiring accurate rendition of color. While very 
faithful reproductions of most subjects are possible with 
three colors there are some requiring greater color accuracy 
and a wider range of color. 

On a " color card " sent out by a paint manufacturer or 
interior decorator, for instance, there may be half a dozen 
shades of blue, as many shades of green, pinks, reds, etc., 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

and it is usually necessary to employ the fourth plate in 
order to faithfully reproduce these. 

The reason for this is that with the use of the foiuth 
color, that is the black, the engraver has a better oppor- 
tunity to manipulate the other three colors, so as to obtain 
the varying shades and the wide variety of color such 
subjects demand. 



PROCESS "COPY" 

Copy for two, three or four color process half-tones 
should be in color, for the reason that the engraver has a 
guide at all times for the manipulation of his plates. The 
chief reason, however, is that it enables the engraver to 
obtain his color separation in the negatives instead of hav- 
ing to depend upon his judgment in etching and reetching 
the plates. 

Where color-copy is furnished for three-color half-tone 
reproduction the copy is placed on the camera, and a filter 
screen, consisting of celluloid or a fluid enclosed in a spe- 
cially constructed glass container, is placed before the lens. 
The first negative made is that for the red plate. The color- 
filter employed filters all the colors from the subject except 
the red. The result is that the red portions of the subject 
predominate in this particular negative. The filter is then 
changed for the blue plate and again for the yellow, in each 
case making it possible for the camera to emphasize the 
parts of the subject required. 

With these three negatives the engraver has a much 
better opportunity to work up his plates than he would have 
were he working from ordinary copy, and obliged to depend 
on his judgment for his color effects. 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



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DUOTYPES" AND "DUOGRAPHS" 



Duotype plates arc two half-tones made from the same 
negative. 

Duograph half-tones are two half-tone plates made from 
separate negatives, these negatives being made without 
changing the focus or shifting the camera. 

Two-color half-tones are usually made from color-copy, 
and require considerable tooling or cutting out on one or 
the other or both of the plates. 

The term two-color half-tones, as explained above, usu- 
ally applies to plates printed in contrasting colors. Duo- 
graph and duotype plates are frequently printed in two 
shades of the same color; for instance, a sepia and a buff. 
They are generally used where a photographic or a two- 
tone effect is desired. 



REVERSED HALF-TONES 

The two figures shown on page 39 were made from the 
same drawing, by simply reversing one of the negatives. 
Similar " reversed " plates can be made from any drawing. 
Occasionally they can be used very effectively, particularly 
in large folders. The phrase " reversed position " should be 
used in ordering such plates, as a " reversed " plate, tech- 
nically, is one in which the colors are reversed; the white 
in the drawing being reproduced as black, and vice versa. 
This is explained further in the section devoted to " Line 
Engravings." 

Care should be exercised in the selection of subjects for 
reversed-position plates, for the reason that reverse position 
reverses everything exactly as does a mirror. 

A man's coat, for instance, is made with buttons on the 
right side and buttonholes on the left. A reverse-position 
plate reverses this order. A left-drive automobile if 
reversed will appear as a right-hand drive car, etc. 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



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"The predominant cover" in the automobile industry. Over one- 
fifth of all the automobile catalogues issued have BUCKEYE COVERS. 
The above are a few of them. 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



FINISHING THE HALF-TONE 

The style in which the half-tone is finished is sometimes 
dictated by the requirements of the job for which it is 
mtended, sometimes by the taste or fancy of the advertiser, 
and sometimes by the convenience of the engraver. 

It is the prerogative of the customer to specify the style 
of finish. If he does not do so, the engraver will use his 
judgment, and m most cases this will probably be eminently 
satisfactory to everyone concerned. 

The several finishes, which may be readily identified as 
they occur in the pages of this book, are as follows: 

SQUARE (Rectangular).— Half-tones are ordinarily 
finished in this style imless otherwise ordered. 

SQUARE (Rectangular) WITH LINE.— A fine black 
line along each edge of the plate, enclosing it. Desir- 
able on plates having light-toned backgrounds, as square 
finished hali-tones with such backgrounds, without an en- 
closing line, are difficult to print properly, and do not wear 
well. 

OUTLINED.— Background cut away. 

VIGNETTED.— Plate etched so that the printed im- 
pression has no definite outline, but appears to gradually 
fade away around the edges. 

OUTLINED AND VIGNETTED.— Plate partly out- 
lines and partly vignetted. See example on page 34. 

PRINTING THE HALF-TONE 

ui "^u® ^V^^ newspaper that comes to your hand will prob- 
ably be a fairly representative sample of the roughest paper 
on which a coarse-screen half-tone can be printed accept- 

^ From this as you go up the scale you will find that just 
m proportion as the half-tone becomes finer and the stand- 



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ard of work higher, so the paper must be smoother, until 
it reaches, in the best coated stocks, as near an approach 
to absolute fiatness as human skill has thus far been able to 
achieve. 

" Coated " paper is paper surfaced with a special clay 
which has first been applied uniformly and then " calen- 
dered " to the required degree of smoothness and evenness. 
This is the easiest paper for the printer to secure satisfac- 
tory results on, and is the logical printing medium for the 
majority of fine half-tone jobs. 



OBJECTIONS TO GLOSSY PAPER 

Glossy paper is objectionable to many people, however, 
being undeniably hard on the eyes because of extent to 
which it reflects light; and the necessity for using such 
paper, in the preparation of artistic books and catalogues, 
has always been considered one of the disadvantages of 
the half-tone process. 

In the recently introduced "dull-coated" paper the objec- 
tionable gloss has been eliminated, although the gain has 
not been without its corresponding disadvantages. The 
cost and the difficulty of manipulation have both been 
increased, while the average results obtained, in clearness 
of impression and faithful rendering of details in the illus- 
trations, are hardly equal to those obtained on the glossy 
paper. 

Dull-coated papers, too, soil more readily than the glossy 
papers, and this is a disadvantage where they are handled 
a great deal. 



ORDERING "DULL-COATED" PRINTING 

Where it is proposed to use a dull-coated paper, the 
work should be given only to a printer who has had expe- 
rience with such papers, and who can show samples that 
demonstrate his ability to print them properly. 

45 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

Half-tones can be printed satisfactorily on rough papers 
by first " hot-stamping " or ironing-out that portion of the 
paper which is to take the half-tone impression. This 
method is used principally on covers and small announce- 
ments. 

LINE-ENGRAVINGS 



Zincs, 



Line-engravings, also called zinc etchings and 
though they are sometimes etched on copper, can be made 
from any " copy " in which the object or design is repre- 
sented by solid lines, dots, or masses of color. 

The " copy " is almost always a drawing, and usually it 
is a pen-drawing, although a brush is sometimes used. 



















A few popular " Ben Day " patterns or shading mediums. 

Pen-drawings, wherever possible, should be made with 
black india ink on white paper. Red, orange, dark blue and 
dark green can also be photographed, and it is useful to 
know this; but the only legitimate occasion for the use of 
any of these colors, assuming that black ink is available, is 
where an artist desires to differentiate certain portions of 
his drawing, either for the guidance of the engraver, or to 



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give his client a better idea as to the effect that is to be 
produced. 

Making the drawing in black and red where the plates 
are to print those colors; coloring portions of the drawing 
to indicate the placing of " Ben Day " tints in making the 
plate ; and painting the sky in a drawing light blue (which 
does not photograph), merely to give the drawing a niore 
finished look, are examples of the use of colors in line- 
drawings. 

Line-engravings can not be made from wash-drawings, 
photographs (except photographs of line-drawings), or any 
" copy " containing tints or " half-tones." 

Where shaded effects are necessary, they are produced 
by drawing fine lines or dots close together. These shaded 
effects MUST be drawn, for the print from the finished line- 
engraving is always an exact reproduction of the original 
drawing. If a zinc etching were to be made from a drawing 
containing gray tones, they would be reproduced as either 
white or black. There is no provision for breaking them up 
into a fine pattern of lines and dots as in the half-tone 
process. 

THE "BEN-DAV PROCESS 

The only exception to this is the " Ben Day " process, by 
which patterns of lines and dots can be introduced into 
designated portions of the plate. Examples of such tints, 
and of designs containing them, are shown on accompany- 
ing pages. 

Real shading can be introduced into a plate by the " Ben 
Day " process — that is, gradations from a light to a dark 
tint can be produced ; but such work is both expensive and 
uncertain, and unless the advertiser has reason to be pretty 
sure of the result in advance, he will do well not to order 
such special work done on his plates, unless the circum- 
stances are such that he feels warranted in paying for 
experiments. 

47 



!<<*lliRPI9PIIPIili 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTIC E 

Ordinary " Ben Day " work, the laying of flat tints on 
certain portions of a plate, is not open to this objection, and 
it often gives color and contrast to a design which without 
it would appear dull and lifeless. 

The " Ben Day " process is not utilized to anything like 
the extent it should be, and a knowledge of its possibilities 





Zinc etching from stipple drawing. Zinc etching from line drawing 



(as well as its limitations) should be part of the equipment 
of every advertising man, as also of every merchant and 
manufacturer who has occasion to concern himself with 
the preparation and publication of his own advertising. 

ADVANTAGES OF LINE-ENGRAVINGS 

The half-tone has already been referred to as the cheap- 
est and best means (in general) of obtaining printed repro- 
ductions of pictures or designs or objects. 

This is perfectly true, but it is nevertheless a rule to 
which there are important exceptions, and the line-engrav- 
ing provides such exceptions at both ends of the scale. 

48 



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The line-engraving for some purposes is a great deal 
cheaper than the half-tone, the drawing or other " copy " 
being considered part of the cost in both cases; and for 
other purposes it is a great deal better than the half-tone, 
although it costs more. 

A dishpan, for instance, is a very difficult object to 
photograph. If polished, it must first be gone over with 
putty or some similar substance to " kill " the reflections, 
and even then the photograph will not be good enough to 
serve as copy for a half-tone until considerable " retouch- 
ing " has been done upon it. 

A reproduction of a dishpan by this method would be 
decidedly expensive, yet it would tell nothing more about 
the pan than its SHAPE; and the shape is so simple that 
an artist could draw it with a pen in far less time than he 
could retouch the photograph. 



WHEN LINE-ENGRAVINGS ARE 

EXPENSIVE 

An intricate wall-paper or carpet pattern, on the other 
hand, can be readily and successfully photographed; 
whereas, to make a pen-drawing of such a design would be 




Line engraving from pen-drawing made over " silver print " of photo- 
graph. (Mill of The Beckett Paper Co.) 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

a long and tedious and expensive proceeding, and the fin- 
ished line-engraving, with the cost of the drawing added in, 
would be far higher than that of the half-tone. The same 
would be true of automobiles or buildings, or any articles 
or objects having irregular outlines and a great deal of 
detail. 




Vignetted half-tone from photograph of wash-drawing 
(Mill of The Beckett Paper Co.) 



Line-drawings, with the engravings made from them, 
are cheaper than half-tones when the objects to be repre- 
sented are simple; and retouched photographs, with the 
half-tones made from them, are cheaper when the objects 
are complicated and full of detail.* 

•This comparison is somewhat modified by the size of the plates, 
Line-engravings cost less than half as much per square inch as half-tones, 
and a very large reproduction in line might therefore be cheaper than a 
half-tone, even though the line-drawing cost more than a photograph. Line- 
drawings of photographic subjects also cost less where photographs arc 
available, since the drawing can be made over a " silver print " of the photo- 
graph, as in the example shown on page 49. 

50 



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The cost, however, is not always the principal factor 
that is considered in determining whether line-engravings 
or half-tones shall be used. 

Half-tones are often used where "zincs" would have 
been cheaper, and vice versa, for the sake of the general 
EFFECT that will be produced, as distinguished from the 
mere faithful representation of the article advertised. 



(( 



ATMOSPHERE" AS A SELLING 

FACTOR 

A notable instance of this is the growing use of line- 
engravings for the purpose of introducing " atmosphere " 
into the better grades of advertising literature. 

It is often said that a camera tells the facts, but doesn't 
tell the truth, and while this sounds paradoxical, it is never- 
theless a very accurate statement of the camera's principal 
limitation. 

A photograph tells you how a thing IS, but not how it 
LOOKS, and this is why you can often view a photograph 
of a familiar place or scene unmoved, while a painting 
" takes you back " to the place in a moment, even though 
many of the details shown in the photograph may be absent 
from the painting. 

The photograph gives you the facts ; but it requires the 
brush of the artist to give you the truthful impression that 
makes you feel as though you were really there. 

Something of this sort is what the more progressive 
commercial artists are now seeking, and with considerable 
success, to introduce into commercial literature — not mere 
illustrations of automobiles, but pictorial impressions of 
people enjoying rides in automobiles ; not mere illustrations 
of furniture, but pictorial impressions of rooms with the 
furniture in them, designed to make you feel as if you were 
actually in the room yourself; not mere illustrations of 
electric fans, but pictorial impressions of people enjoying 
the breezes produced by the fans — and so on. 

51 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

GREATER FIDELITY OF LINE- 
ENGRAVINGS 

The best of this " impressionistic " work is done in line 
for the reason that the line-engraving process reproduces 
the artist's drawing exactly as it is. It reproduces mass for 
mass, line for line and dot for dot; whereas the half-tone, 
in reproducing a painting or wash-drawing, as has been 
already explained, yields an assemblage of TONES which 
may or may not — and usually does not — result in an abso- 
lutely faithful rendering of the original. 

In making a drawing for half-tone reproduction, the 
artist is obliged to make some allowance for the limitations 
of the process. He must make his drawing somewhat more 
contrastive — " contrasty *' the engravers call it — than he 
wishes the finished print to be, and must guess as to how 
much of the contrast will be lost. When he makes a draw- 
ing for line reproduction, he KNOWS in advance exactly 
what the result will be. Whatever he puts into the drawing 
will come out in the print. 

ZINC COLORWORK AND 
TINT-BLOCKS 

As explained under the head of zinc etching, such plates 
are made from line or pen-and-ink drawings. Where more 
than one color is to be used it is the rule to submit a pre- 
liminary color-sketch showing the actual colors and the 
effect expected in the final printed result. 

When the color-sketch has been approved, a " Working *' 
drawing is made. This consists of a pen-drawing made with 
india ink on white paper — carrying the essential parts of 
the design or picture — and so manipulated as to make it 
possible for the engraver to render the color effect shown in 
the original or preliminary sketch. 

If the job is to print in three colors, the engraver makes 
one negative from the line-drawing, reducing it to the 

52 



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required size, and then makes three prints from this nega- 
tive on zinc. 

Assuming that the copy is to print in black, red, and 
blue, the print intended for the black plate usually carries 
the complete picture or design. That intended for the red 
plate is taken up by a color-etcher, and he removes every- 
thing from the plate except that portion which is to print 
red. The same treatment is given the blue plate. 

It is always advisable to employ a black plate in zinc 
colorwork. This plate to serve as the key-plate — that is, 
the plate which reproduces the picture. There may not be 
a particle of black in the object to be pictured, but unless 
a black outline is shown there is always a tendency to 
weakness. 

Zinc colorwork ranges anywhere from two to six, seven 
and eight printings, and wonderful effects are possible 
where the colors are properly manipulated. 

The Ben Day process plays an important part in zinc 
colorwork, by making it possible to produce many tints of 
the same color with one printing from a single plate. 

If one portion of a design is to print red while another 
portion is to be light pink, it is not necessary to print these 
colors separately. The pink can be produced by Ben 
Daying the red plate, just as gray was produced by Ben 
Daying portions of several of the black plates that are 
shown in this book. 



TINT-PLATES 

A zinc tint-plate usually consists of a solid piece of zinc 
for use as a foundation or panel for a type-page. Fre- 
quently a border line is cut into this plate so that the 
border itself will print white. Such plates are used for 
embellishing type-pages, and there is nothing more effective 
for the purpose and really nothing less expensive. The 
tint-plate is usually printed in some very light tint, such as 
a buff, very delicate blue or gray. 

53 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



PRINTING LINE-ENGRAVINGS 

Line-engravings can be printed on any kind of paper, 
but where rough paper is to be used the engraving should 
be made with this end in view. A line-engraving contain- 
ing very fine detail requires smooth paper for satisfactory 
printing, just as the half-tone does. Consult your engraver 
and printer before ordering line-engravings containing fine 
detail, if the work is to be done on any but a smooth- 
finished paper. 

REVERSED "ZINCS'* 

Line-engravings can be made exactly like the drawing, 
or can be "reversed" as to either color or position, as 
explained under " Half-Tones." Examples of reversed- 
position half-tones and reversed-color zincs will be found on 
accompanying pages. (See page facing this for " Reversed- 
Color " zincs, in combination with Ben Day tints.) 

WOODCUTS 

In the preceding " Line-Engraving " section, some of 
the limitations of the half-tone have been touched upon. 
There is one other, however, which, while not so serious as 
those already mentioned, is nevertheless sufficient to make 
it worth while for advertisers to use the more expensive 
wood engraving for certain kinds of work. 

The half-tone reproduces TONES fairly accurately, but 
it can not differentiate between different TEXTURES 
having the same tone. This is a limitation of photography 
rather than of the half-tone process, but it is the finished 
plate that the advertiser is concerned with, and in this he 
can not get the effects that are sometimes necessary, if the 
object reproduced is to appear exactly as seen by the eye. 

A piece of wood and a piece of iron, for instance, if they 
reflect the same amount of actinic light, will look exactly 
alike if reproduced in half-tone, although to the eye they 
may be entirely different. The same is true of any two 

54 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

substances, or any portions of an object which have the 
same color with different textures, or which have different 
colors that happen to photograph alike. 

The woodcut overcomes this difficulty, because in mak- 
ing it the artist deals with textures as well as tones; he 
can control the direction and character of the lines and dots 
that form the design, as well as the general effect. 




Woodcut from photograph. 

The woodcut, therefore, permits a much more faithful 
rendering of detail in mechanical subjects than is possible 
in either the half-tone or the line-engraving. 

Woodcuts can be made from any copy, but those used 
in advertising are usually made from photographs of the 
articles represented, the photographic image being trans- 
ferred to the wood block, which is then tooled by hand. 

PRINTING THE WOODCUT 

Woodcuts can be printed on any kind of paper, but the 
same restriction applies as in the case of the line-engraving 
— if rough paper is to be used, the cut must be made accord- 
ingly. 

So far as advertising is concerned, woodcuts are usually 
resorted to as a means of showing details that could not be 
reproduced properly by the half-tone or line-engraving 
processes, and this means, af course, that they are usually 
printed on smooth papers. 

56 



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SIZES OF DRAWINGS 

Drawings, photographs and other copies for reproduc- 
tion should be somewhat larger than the finished engrav- 
ings that are to be made from them. Often they are made 
several times as large; there is no general rule. 

Some artists prefer to make certain kinds of drawings 
as nearly the size of the finished plates as possible, in order 
the better to judge of the effect as the work proceeds. 
Others prefer to make very large drawings, for the reason 
that larger drawings require less careful handling, and can 
often be done with a brush instead of a pen, thus securing 
" broad " effects that otherwise would be out of the ques- 
tion. 



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Four trade-mark cuts from the same drawing. Notice 
" filling-up " of the smallest cut. 

Photographs require much more careful retouching when 
they are nearly the size of the finished plate than when they 
are considerably larger, and this is an unnecessary expense 
that should be avoided wherever possible. 

Where a number of photographs are to be made for half- 
tone reproduction, it is best to consult the engraver as to 
the most suitable size. The size of drawings as a rule can 
be left to the discretion of the artist, provided he has had 
some commercial experience, and knows the size the fin- 
ished plates are to be made. 

Note. — As a rule many diflferent sizes of cuts can be made from the same draw- 
inj?, but there is always a limit beyond which reduction can not be carried without 
" losing " some of the detail in the design. Compare the largest and smallest of 
the above trade-mark cuts. If another cut half the size of the smallest had been 
made from the same drawing, the white lettering on the black ground would have 
been entirely illegible. 

57 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



(( 



SCALING" A DRAWING 



It frequently happens that an advertiser, having before 
him a drawing from which a cut is to be made, wishes to 
know how high the cut will be if it is made a certain width, 
or vice versa. , 

Taking the accompanying diagram as an example, and 
letting the outline represent a drawing 7^/2 inches wide by 
4% inches high, suppose it is proposed to make a cut 3^ 
inches long — what will be its height? 




Proportionate reduction or enlargement. The diagonal line shows 
the shaded space to be in exact proportion to the large outline. Sec 
explanation in text 

Figuring it arithmetically, the problem is one in simple 
proportion, and is set down this way : 
754 : 454 :: 3^ : x. 

Multiplying A3^ by 3^ and dividing by 7%, we obtain 
2^ as the value of x, which is the height in inches of the 
proposed engraving. 

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A much simpler method, however, and one that allows 
of experimenting with various sizes without endless figur- 
ing, is to draw a diagonal line on the drawing, as shown in 
the diagram, and use this as a basis for the determination 
of all size and proportion questions that may arise. 

If it is proposed to make a cut a certain width, the 
height is obtained by measuring off the width along the 
lower margin of the drawing, then measuring the vertical 
distance from the point thus obtained to the diagonal line. 
This distance will be the height of the drawing. 

Conversely, if the proposed height of the cut is known, 
the width is obtained by laying off the height on the left 
border of the drawing, beginning at the lower corner, then 
measuring horizontally from the left margin to the diagonal 
line. The horizontal distance between the two will be the 
width of the drawing. 

Where the character of the drawing permits, the diag- 
onal line can be drawn very lightly with a hard pencil. This 
should not be attempted on wash-drawings or photographs, 
however. The same result can be closely approximated 
by using a piece of string for the diagonal, or by covering 
the face of the drawing with a piece of tracing-paper, and 
penciling the diagonal on that. 

If the drawing to be scaled down has no rectangular 
outline, it is of course necessary to provide one, and this 
should be done carefully with a T square, making sure that 
all portions of the drawing are inside the rectangle. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE ENGRAVER 

Drawings or photographs sent to the engraver should 
bear clear instructions as to the character and dimensions 
of the plate or plates that are to be made. If the drawing 
is known to be correctly proportioned, it is sufficient to 
indicate the width or height of the cut that is to be made. 
If this point is in doubt, however, both dimensions should 
be given, and it will then devolve upon the engraver to call 
attention to any discrepancy. 

59 






PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



ELECTROTYPES 

Where more than one printing-plate of the same size is 
required from the same design, it is not necessary that each 
plate be an original engraving. By the electrotype process 
as many duplicates as may be wanted can be made from a 
single original, and at a fraction of its cost, whether it be a 
half-tone, line-engraving or woodcut. 

ORDINARY ELECTROTYPES, the kind the electro- 
typer furnishes unless another kind is specified, are wax- 
moulded, and are satisfactory for all classes of engravings 
except those having fine detail and intended for high-grade 
work. 

LEAD-MOULDED ELECTROTYPES are used where 
it is necessary to reproduce fine-screen half-tones and other 
fine-detail plates with absolute fidelity. Wax-moulded 
electrotypes from such plates are slightly inferior in print- 
ing quality to the originals, whereas when the electrotypes 
are lead-moulded, they print exactly as well as the original 
plates. Lead-moulded electrotypes are now used exten- 
sively for the better grades of colorwork. 

NICKELTYPES are nickel-plated electrotypes. The 
nickel-plating is sometimes added to improve the wearing 
.qualities of electrotypes from which a large number of 
impressions are to be taken ; but more often the purpose of 
it is to eliminate difficulties that are encountered when 
printing in colors from ordinary electrotypes. Some colored 
inks, and particularly reds, contain substances that set up 
chemical action when they come in contact with copper, so 
that the colors may be changed considerably while the work 
is in process. With nickeltypes, this trouble does not occur. 

ELECTROTYPES FROM TYPE-FORMS, or from 
forms containing both type and engravings, can be made as 
readily as from individual engravings alone. The elcctro- 

60 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



typer can handle anything you give him, from the size of a 
postage-stamp up to the size of a newspaper page and 
larger. 

ELECTROTYPES FROM ELECTROTYPES are not 
quite as good as electrotypes made from original plates, and 
it is not advisable to order them where it can be avoided. 



MOUNTING ELECTROTYPES 

MOUNTING ON WOOD.— Unless otherwise specified, 
electrotypes are mounted on wood by the electrotyper, the 
completed plates as delivered being type-high. The great 
majority of electrotypes are wood-mounted, and this style 
of mounting is entirely satisfactory for all ordinary work. 

MOUNTING ON METAL.— Where electrotypes are of 
such a nature that a great deal of pressure will be required 
to print them properly, as is the case with electrotypes of 
large half-tones, and particularly if such electrotypes are to 
be used for long press runs, they are often mounted on metal 
instead of wood, the metal base being more rigid, and less 
likely to yield under excessive pressure or other hard usage. 

PATENT BASES.— Many printers use patent bases for 
certain kinds of work, principally catalogues and booklets, 
but occasionally small jobs of close-register colorwork also. 
There are several types of these patent bases, but the princi- 
ple of all of them is the same — they permit unmounted 
electrotypes and other plates to be assembled and registered 
in a form much more readily than is possible where mounted 
plates are assembled and locked up in a chase with ordinary 
" furniture." Plates for use on patent blocks must be of a 
prescribed thickness and should have the edges beveled at 
a certain angle, according to the make of block. Such 
unmounted plates are cheaper than mounted ones. The 
printer should notify the customer when " patent-block " 
plates arc wanted. 

61 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

HOW ELECTROTYPES CUT PRINTING 

COSTS 

If you were getting out a hundred thousand small book- 
lets, or folders, or blotters, or letter-heads, it would be a 
sheer waste of money to have them printed one at a time. 
By making duplicate sets o^ plates (electrotypes), several 
complete pieces, or one side of several complete pieces, could 
be printed on a large sheet at a single impression, and the 
saving in presswork would much more than offset the cost 
of the electrotypes. 

All large editions of small advertising forms, and some- 
times of comparatively large forms, are printed most eco- 
nomically in this way, the number printed at a single 
impression being determined by ascertaining the point at 
which the cost of the electrotypes, extra make-ready, etc., 
equals or exceeds the saving in presswork. This is usually 
figured by the printer, and it is customary for the printer, 
in submitting his estimate, to state the number of sets of 
plates that he will require — or the number that he plans to 
furnish, if the electrotypes are included in his estimate. 

The multiple printing of the same design is the most 
obvious of the advantages conferred upon the advertiser by 
the electrotype process, but it is by no means the only way 
in which electrotypes can be used to cut printing costs, 
avoid undue loss risks, and maintain uniform quality in the 
printing. 

WHEN ORIGINAL PLATES ARE COSTLY it is 
always advisable to print from electrotypes, preserving the 
original plates, since if an original plate is damaged the cost 
of replacing it will be many times the cost of replacing a 
damaged electrotype. 

WHEN LONG PRESS RUNS ARE REQUIRED, it is 
advisable to print from electrotypes, not only to preserve 
the original plates, but also to maintain the quality of the 
work, a second set of electrotypes being made from the 
original plates and put on the press as soon as the first set 

62 



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J 






i 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

has become enough worn so that they do not produce satis- 
factory results. 

WHEN DESIGNS ARE TO BE REPRINTED RE- 
PEATEDLY, the original plates should be used only for 
making electrotypes, thus assuring a perfect printing-plate 
for each job. 

TYPE-FORMS should be electrotyped if it is antici- 
pated that later reprints will be required, unless arrange- 
ments can be made with the printer to keep the type stand- 
ing for less than the electrotypes would cost, and this is 
hardly likely to be the case, particularly if the type is hand- 
set foundry type. It is also advisable to make electrotypes 
of type that has been set up for a long run or for a job to be 
printed on very rough or very soft paper, either of which 
may wear the type to the point where it will not produce 
satisfactory impressions, long before the run has been com- 
pleted. Many printers will not print directly from the more 
desirable type-faces that they use for setting up fine cata- 
logues and booklets — they figure that they give all of their 
customers better service by insisting that every such job be 
electrotyped, thus assuring perfect printing-plates, the 
equivalent of brand-new type, in every case. 

SOLDERING JOINTS IN RULE — Where a type- 
form has a rule border, particularly if the border is made 
up of two or more parallel rules joined at the corners, it 
usually pays to have the form electrotyped, instructing the 
electrotyper to solder the joints in the rule. These will 
show to a greater or lesser extent if the printing is done 
direct from the type-and-rule form, the joints in the rule- 
work sometimes being quite noticeable. 



63 



PRINCI P LES AND PRACTICE 




I 



A group of representative "BUCKEYE-COVERED" catalogues and 
booklets. All but one were printed from line-engravings. 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



HINTS ON COPY-WRITING 

Advertising, as already stated in the introduction to this 
book, is not an exact science, but this does not mean that it 
is not a science, and still less does it mean that the writing 
of successful advertisements is something that can be mas- 
tered by rule of thumb. 

The best advertising is unquestionably written by 
experts, men who have learned to do the thing by DOING 
it, and wherever an important campaign is to be undertaken, 
or even a single advertisement published, it is best to 
employ an expert if one is available. 

It often happens, however, that a man who is not an 
expert is confronted with the necessity of writing his own 
or someone else's advertisement ; or perhaps he desires to 
write advertising, in order that he may gain the experience 
which in time will make him an expert, provided he has the 
requisite natural ability. How shall such a man proceed? 

Many writers and lecturers on advertising have a glib 
bit of advice that has been constructed to meet this contin- 
gency. They tell you to " write as you would talk," and 
they have repeated this so often, in one form or another, that 
by many it has probably come to be accepted as a sort of 
fixed principle of salesmanship-on-paper, something perma- 
nent and immutable, like the law of gravitation. 



ADVICE SHOULD BE TAKEN WITH 
DISCRIMINATION 

The man who wishes to use the printed word effectively 
as a means of making sales, should not be led astray by the 
constant reiteration of this phrase. He should not ignore 
it, but neither should he follow it blindly. He should apply 
it discriminatingly. He should take it, like most other 
advice, with a little salt. 

65 



..mmeim^m^ 



» 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

One writer has indeed supplied a formula with which 
you may test for yourself the soundness of this " write-as- 
you-would-talk " prescription. You memorize an advertise- 
ment that has a '* literary " flavor, one that does not sound 
like " talk." You then repeat it to someone, preferably a 
prospective customer, when its absurdity becomes immedi- 
ately apparent. 



HOW TALK " SOUNDS " IN PRINT 

This is a good test, and in many cases it will work out 
exactly as stated. Carry it a little farther, however, by 
reading the transcribed report of an oral selling effort, and 
you will see that the converse of the proposition is also 
true : a good " talk " may " sound " as bad when you read 
it instead of listening to it as does a printed advertisement 
when you listen to it instead of reading it. 

Read a printed report of a sermon by Billy Sunday, and 
you will get the full force of this distinction. Billy has 
"punch" plus on the platform, but mighty little in print. 

What he says is not particularly interesting or impres- 
sive when you read it. It is THE WAY HE SAYS IT that 
enables him to sway huge audiences as he does, and that 
has made him the most successful evangelist of his time. 

If printed " talk " does not serve the turn of evangelism, 
how much less can it be depended upon to serve the turn of 
advertising, where the problem is so much more particular 
and difficult! 

The evangelist, whether in the pulpit or through the 
medium of the newspaper, is talking to a mixed audience. 
He is dealing with human nature in the mass. 

The advertiser talks to a mixed audience in his printed 
advertisements, but when the message is carried by a sales- 
man, the talk is nearly always to individuals, and it does 
not suffice for the salesman to know human nature in a 
general way. He must know it in all its particular manifes- 

66 



J 



k 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

tations. He must be able to classify individuals as he meets 
them, and must know how to shape his appeal in conform- 
ity with their tastes and inclinations, taking advantage of 
their weaknesses, if they have any, and being guided con- 
tinually by their response, or their lack of response, to his 
solicitation. 

HOW TO SELL A MOP 

Imagine a salesman making a house-to-house canvass, 
introducing a patent labor-saving mop. At one door he is 
met by a woman who is obviously indolent — one who 
regards housework as drudgery, and the less of it she has 
to do the better. At the next door the woman has a brisk, 
energetic appearance, and she wears an air of impatience 
at having been called away from her work. 

The same appeal will not work with both these women. 
The lazy woman would not be impressed by a talk about 
the greater amount of work she could do if she had the 
patent mop; nor would the energetic woman be attracted 
by the prospect of getting her work out of the way by two 
o'clock, so that she could take the afternoon off. 

The salesman talks " less work " to the lazy woman, 
" more work " to the lively one, and so sells a mop to each. 

Now, suppose this mop is to be advertised by means of 
a circular or booklet mailed to both women — and to thou- 
sands of others, each of whom has her own peculiarities? 
Is it not obvious that neither of these " talks " will do, and 
that the printed advertising must contain solicitation of 
another sort? 

The problem of the writer of advertisements is indeed 
different from that of the salesman, and the substitution of 
general for individual solicitation, with the necessary elim- 
ination of the salesman's personality, is by no means the 
whole of the difference. 



67 




PRINCIPLES AND PRAC T I C E 

WHY WRITING IS HARDER 
THAN TALKING 

The advertisement writer must tell his story from begin- 
nmg to end, without interruption, and without knowing how 
much or how little the reader is interested. He must antic- 
ipate objections, not meet them. He can not emphasize 
statements by inflecting them, except to a very limited 
extent by the use of italics, and his language must therefore 
be more forceful, more lucid and convincing, than would be 
necessary if he were actually talking to the prospective 
customer. 

If the advertisement writer asks questions, he must 
answer them himself and in such a way that practically 
every reader will agree, not merely one here and there. He 
must remember that it is much easier to lay aside a circular 
or booklet than to show a salesman the door, and to offset 
this must make a more continuous effort to sustain the 
interest of the reader, and to avoid giving even the slightest 
offense. 

Keep these requirements in mind, and you may then 
safely follow the " write-as-you-would-talk " injunction to 
the extent at least of striving to give your Direct Advertis- 
ing a colloquial rather than a literary flavor. Remember 
that you are appealing to real " folks " rather than writing 
an inscription for a public building, and that those same 
folks" are infinitely more interested in themselves than 
they are in you. 

HOW TO "GET READY TO BEGIN" 

If you were the manufacturer of the patent mop to which 
we have already referred, and if you wished to write a book- 
let or circular about it, and were uncertain how to start, you 
could do a great deal worse than imagine yourself on the 
door-step with the mop in your hand, ready to sell it to the 
woman of the house. 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



• * V 






J* 



i 



\ 









LOOD MORNING! Can I take up five minute* 
ol yoiar time— tibanks. Pm Panotu ^l 
Man, |urt «ot in from Phikdelidiia 
dus moraing. What's mj line? ^ 
Why Panont SSSk Board. Pm jmt out on a ^ ^^^ 
lort <^ ^^g^-aoquannted'tour," to famiiiame l^HEc^* 
you good dbakn with the m^»enar qualitie* ni our boaufd. 
**Hcfw, I fkm't tappom her e t ofw e f(M*ve given mudb 
thoui^t to afflc fooiunlHBfttsvdly if • a nnali detail, but 
then, a» these husinett i&Bosofriheni say, it^s the small 
detiuk that count 

"Yonkaow&at agrH4dkMl«f d&hMurdlB»w«a dwn«rii»t Km 
(aier, wMi •• ft rcccit U Utkst llwuKnt itni wsariBf qawfitiet— ft •mm'% 
Uk» lout »» ennkmrnilofekAtanmi^ Sm mpmUMm . 

'It'* tbmatia, imlkw* *»• Am tuif ummatmnmn wlw mmk» ALL oar ttram 
mOccM*. cpt i i qiwtir «• KNOW «acMi|r wIh^ fern imba k. W« oub rsuwotM 
MV boMti pw« M^iAito w^ aiMaliililr m flkr. Hmt •wr-> '-^ ">• ^>>^» •«»•' 
tyat wsrtii uw M wU ri ay 1m buyiaf ga«d Sflk Bqm«1 iww kml it? 

«Wd^ f fty# mtnmn — m^ U Vt vmrmimBH» yo* Flk Arop im 

Masjf dMaln iar fvm uMwIwy . GaMl itty." 




f ,'tt^\,4>^ryi^ /vt'**.*^. 



iSpecUl R >| > n w Mat >tive fori 




MAilUFACTI«nB KY 

PARSONS PULP AND LUMBER CO. 

FrtuilifiB B«f^ Botkbnf 



'M*: W****** « •«*•«• M>»«*V4t*** *•«*«« »4MI.**t*.»«>» 



Folder designed to suggest the call of a salesman. One 
of a series for which BUCKEYE COVERS were used. 
The illustration is a " tip-on," printed from a half-tone oo 
coated paper. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



PRIN C IPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



WHY WRITING IS HARDER 
THAN TALKING 

The advertisement writer must tell his story from begin- 
nmg to end, without interruption, and without knowing how 
much or how little the reader is interested. He must antic- 
ipate objections, not meet them. He can not emphasize 
statements by inflecting them, except to a very limited 
extent by the use of italics, and his language must therefore 
be more forceful, more lucid and convincing, than would be 
necessary if he were actually talking to the prospective 
customer. 

If the advertisement writer asks questions, he must 
answer them himself and in such a way that practically 
every reader will agree, not merely one here and there. He 
must remember that it is much easier to lay aside a circular 
or booklet than to show a salesman the door, and to offset 
this must make a more continuous effort to sustain the 
interest of the reader, and to avoid giving even the slightest 
offense. 

Keep these requirements in mind, and you may then 
safely follow the " write-as-you-would-talk " injunction to 
the extent at least of striving to give your Direct Advertis- 
ing a colloquial rather than a literary flavor. Remember 
that you are appealing to real " folks *' rather than writing 
^'J J'^scription for a public building, and that those same 
folks are mfinitely more interested in themselves than 
they are in you. 



HOW TO " GET READY TO BEGIN " 

If you were the manufacturer of the patent mop to which 
we have already referred, and if you wished to write a book- 
let or circular about it, and were uncertain how to start, you 
could do a great deal worse than imagine yourself on the 
door-step with the mop in your hand, ready to sell it to the 
woman of the house. 

68 





lOOD MORNING! Can I take up five minutes 
of y<«ir tinie--tiiank». I'm Parsons -;^ ^ ^ 
Man, just goi in from Philadelphia |^H 
this morning. What's my line? %.^ 
Why Parsons SUk Board. Vm just out on a J^^. 
SOTt of "get-acquainted«tour,** to familiarize ^iUlS?' 
you good dealers with the supen<H- qualities of oar board. 
"Now, I don't suppose heretofore youVe given much 
thmight to «& boaifd— natuorally it's a small detail, but 
then, as these business philos<^hers say, it's the unail 
details that count 

"You know that « great dkai of s3k bowxl now oo thenaaiicet ha* 
faier, and a« a result it lack* bending and wearmg qnaiitiec — it wtm't 
take kmg to crack and kxdc thoroughly diwrspotabie. 

"h'x «traa««, but wc ax* tib* otdj murafacturcn ■mtta make ALL oar owm 
nutteml*, cootcqtMBtty w« KNOW exactly what coca into iL W« can gitmniiteti 
oot IxMrd pwr* tatpfatt* witb aixohitciy bo fiOer. You'B aifr«e wiiit ma dukt't ioin«> 
dkiioc wordi conaiciennf in hntymg goo«t SSk Boani, bow isn't it? 

"Wt^ my five Buntttm are b|>. If il'i caavanmat to you PB drop a 
mfia tome tone oext month ami we can diacu** furtiier &i» »Sk boaiti 
proUetB. Mainy duuika tot your court«*y. Good day." 





i^;>ecial Rcpretcntatire for 



TteSQMB 



PARSONS PULP AND LUMBER CO. 

Franklin Bank Buil<tin« PltikdciplM* 



Folder designed to suggest the call of a salesman. One 
of a series for which BUCKEYE COVERS were used. 
The illustration is a " tip-on," printed from a half-tone on 
coated paper. 



«i 



J<^^ 



- .£ 



il 



:il t 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



The woman in this case would be neither of those we 
have already pictured — she would be a composite woman, 
a sort of " average " woman, with no pronounced character- 
istics, nothing to differentiate her from the millions of her 
sisters who make up the sum of American womanhood. 

The picture of this composite woman, and of yourself on 
her door-step, may not suggest to you exactly what you 
should say, but it will at least save you from the enormity 
of printing a cut of your factory where you should have 
printed a cut of the mop, and from talking about your organ- 
ization and equipment where you should have been talking 
about the woman and her house. 

Most successful advertising is objective rather than sub- 
jective, and this means simply that it talks to the prospec- 
tive customer ABOUT HIMSELF, rather than about the 
advertiser. 

The advertiser must act on the assumption, and it is by 
no means an unwarranted assumption, that people are 
intensely interested in things that promise to contribute to 
their comfort, convenience, prosperity, pleasure and general 
well-being, and only casually interested, if at all, in things 
that do not fall within this category. 

Copy that is well begun is half written, and there is no 
better way to begin than by putting yourself in the other 
fellow's place, getting his point of view, learning why he 
ought to WANT what you have to sell, and why he ought 
to want to buy it of you rather than of someone else. 

If you know, you can tell him. If you do not know, the 
writing of the copy is not your job. 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



\ J 



k 




70 



•I* 



Artistic and effective treatments of " The World's Greatest Em- 
bossing Medium." All of the above books printed and embossed on 
BUCKEYE COVERS. 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



TYPOGRAPHY 

Many voluminous books have been written and printed 
on the subject of typography, and more are in preparation, 
but the things that the busy advertiser needs to know about 
the use of type in advertising can be condensed into a few 
short sentences; 

The first and foremost thing that should be kept in mind 
is that your catalogue, or booklet, or folder — whatever is 
to be printed from the type you are selecting or approving 
— is to be issued for the purpose of SELLING GOODS, 
perhaps to people not too willing to read what you have to 
say about them; and the essential thing, therefore, is that 
the story should be EASY TO READ. 

To make a book or other advertisement easy to read, 
there are three primary requirements that must be observed : 

1. The type selected must be legible. 

2. It must be suited to the size and shape of the space 
in which it is to be set. 

3. It must be properly arranged. 

The intrinsic legibility of the type is, of course, the most 
important thing. No amount of skillful arrangement will 
make an advertisement easy to read if the type has not been 
properly selected in the first place. 

Beautiful and legible type-faces are available in great 
variety, and there is no excuse whatever for sacrificing easy 
readability, as is so often done, in the mistaken effort to 
secure an " artistic " effect. 

Artistic effects are often desirable as a means of giving 
an advertisement the proper " atmosphere," but the adver- 
tiser should make sure that the " atmosphere " does not 
tend to become a fog. Art is never good salesmanship if it 
makes the selling talk more difficult to comprehend. 

Advertisers, therefore, can not be urged too strongly or 
too often to avoid the habitual use of the fancy " job " type- 
faces which are now being exploited so extensively. 

72 



.,i V 



^ I 



'• 



AVOID FANCY JOB FACES 

These fancy faces are all right in their place ; they have 
their legitimate uses, but it is pretty safe to assert that they 
have spoiled more sales than they have ever made, and they 
should never be considered, if at all, for any but the very 



The Power of Printing 

TdlS printing is iesued 
for the purpose of influ- 
encing the recipient , not 
to please tlie printer or the 
buyer. It is personal talk put 
on paper. It is an interview 
through the mail which, per- 
haps, could not be personally 
secured with a man in his 
oflice. It is more permanent 
than what a man may say, 
because it may be read and 
re-read and digested ; there- 
fore, what more important 
featurecan there be connected 
with advertising literature, 
than that it should fit the 
requirementsoflhe situation, 
that it should tell the story to 
the recipient in a way calcu- 
lated to interest him more 
than anyone else. There are 
prima rilytwosorlsof printing 
matter — that which is worth 
buyingandthatwhich is not, 
but lliese two classes are, of 



The Power of Printing 

THIS printing is issued 
for the purpose of influ- 
encing the recipient, 
not to please the printer or 
the buyer. It is personal 
talk put on paper. It is an 
interview through the mail 
which, perhaps, could not be 
personally secured with a 
man in his office. It is more 
permanent than what a man 
may say, because it may be 
reAl and re-read and di- 
gested: therefore, what more 
important feature can there 
be connected with advertis- 
ing literature, than that it 
should fit the requirements 
of the situation, that it 
should tell the story to the 
recipient in a way calculated 
to interest him more than 
anyone else. There are pri- 
marily two sorts of printing 
matter — that which is worth 



^ The condensed type, shown in left panel, harmonizes 
with the shape of the space better than the extended 
type in the right panel. 

briefest announcements. For Catalogues, Booklets, Broad- 
sides, any advertisement that requires the serious and sus- 
tained attention of the reader, they are utterly unsuited. 

A number of the more appropriate and legible type-faces 
suitable for advertising literature will be found displayed in 
another part of the book, beginning on page 167. 

73 



1 i 






PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



ADAPTING THE TYPE TO THE SPACE 

THE SIZE AND SHAPE OF THE SPACE in which 
the type is set is the second important factor to be consid- 
ered in designing a readable and attractive advertisement. 

Very large type is not easily readable if set in a narrow 



# ? 



The Power of Printing 

THIS printing is issued for the purpose of influencing the 
recipient, not to please the printer or the buyer. It is 
personal talk put on paper. It is an interview through the 
mail which perhaps, could not be personally secured with a man 
in his office. It is more permahent than what a man may say, 
because it may be read and re-read and digested : therefore, what 
more important feature can there be connected with advertising 
literature, than that it should fit the requirements of the situation, 
thai it should tell the story to the recipient in a way calculated to 
interest him more than anyone else. There are primarily two sorts 






fl . 



li 'I i 



The Power of Prinling 

THIS prinling is issued for the purpose of mfluoncing tlie recipi- 
ent, nut to piruse the printer or the buyer, it is |KTSonal talk 
put on paper. I tMan interview through the mail winch, perliaps, 
could not be personully secured with a man in hisolTice. It is more 
pennanentllhan what a man may say, because it may be read and 
ro-read and digested : therefore, what more important foaturc can 
there lie connected with advertising literature, than that it should fit 
the requirements of the situation, thai it should tell the story to the 
recipient in a way calculated to interest hiin more than anyone else. 
There are primarily two sorts of printing matter — that which is worth 



\l H 



Upper panel — extended type, harmonizing with 
space. Lower panel — condensed type, not suitable for 
this space. 

column that requires frequent breaking of words, irregular 
spacing, etc.; nor is very small type easy to read if set in 
a wide measure : it is difficult for the eye to " find the place " 
when going back from the end of one line to pick up the 
beginning of the next. 

74 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

Readability is also promoted to a limited extent, and 
attractiveness to a very great extent, by using type that is 
similar in SHAPE to the space in which it is set, especially 
if one dimension of the space is much greater than the other. 

Notice the accompanying examples, showing the advan- 
tage of using EXTENDED type in spaces that are wider 
than they are high, and CONDENSED type in spaces that 
are higher than they are wide. 

PROPER ARRANGEMENT of the type is an impor- 
tant factor in determining the readability of an advertise- 
ment, though it is less vital than the selection of a legible 
type-face of the proper size and shape for the prescribed 
space. 

Enough depends upon the actual typesetting, however, 
to make it worth while for the advertiser to see that the 
following points are observed : 

DON'T USE SMALL TYPE 

1. Do not allow your Direct Advertisements to be set 
in an unnecessarily small size of type. An examination of 
any representative collection of such advertisements will as 
a rule disclose several that could have been made much 
more readable by the use of a larger type-size. The reason 
for this is that when the printer is required to set matter 
to fill a certain space, he naturally selects a size that he is 
SURE will allow him to get everything in without crowd- 
ing. If it comes short of filling the space, he has only to 
"lead it out" — that is, insert strips of lead between the 
lines — whereas if there were too much matter, part or all 
of it would have to be reset. Both contingencies can be 
avoided by careful figuring, and if necessary by setting an 
experimental page before the size of type is decided upon. 

"KEEPING THE READER GOING" 

2. In Catalogues and Booklets where description or 
argument runs continuously from one page to another, 
avoid ending paragraphs at the bottom of a page, so far 

75 



I i 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

as is practicable. This applies particularly to right-hand 
pages. If a paragraph ends at the bottom of the page, the 
reader may stop there; whereas, if he is in the middle of 
a sentence when he reaches the bottom of the page, he is 
obliged to turn over to the next page to complete it. 

CAPITALIZING THE READER'S 
INDIFFERENCE 

3. People who receive Catalogues and Booklets do not 
always read them through systematically. Sometimes they 
" glance through them " idly, and it is a good plan to take 
advantage of this fact, as the more experienced advertisers 
do, by arranging the text so that the reader's attention will 
be attracted by some important word, or phrase, or sen- 
tence, NO MATTER WHERE THE BOOK IS OPENED. 
If subheads or display lines are inserted at intervals in the 
text, see that each " spread," or pair of facing pages, carries 
at least one such line. If no display lines are used, the same 
result can be attained by setting the first line of each para- 
graph in type one or two sizes larger than the balance of 
the paragraph. This method is followed extensively in all 
forms of advertising, including newspaper and magazine 
display. It is a violation of the strict canons of typographic 
good taste, but it is entirely in accordance with the estab- 
lished canons of successful selling, and these are usually 
allowed to prevail over taste (although they are not often 
in conflict with it) where advertising is concerned. 

HOW NOT TO USE SPACES 

4. Avoid unnecessary letter-spacing — that is, spacing 
between the letters of a word — and remember that most 
such spacing IS unnecessary, except in setting title-pages. 
As a rule, letter-spacing has a tendency to make display 
lines less attractive and more difficult to read. Larger or 
more extended type can nearly always be substituted, to 
good advantage. 

76 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

USE AND ABUSE OF ITALICS AND 

CAPITALS 

Italics, small capitals and capitals are used to give 
emphasis to important words or phrases in the text of an 
advertisement. The principle to be applied in employing 
them is the same that applies to emphasizing the spoken 
word — " If it is emphasized too much, it isn't emphasized 
at all." 

Just as the too-vociferous speaker fails to impress his 
audience, so the italic or capital besprinkled advertisement 
defeats its own purpose. The reader becomes so accus- 
tomed to the frequent recurrence of emphasis that he either 
pays no attention to it whatever, or it serves merely as an 
irritant. 

It is the quiet-talking man, the man of reserve force, 
who makes an occasional emphasis count, and it is precisely 
so with an advertisement. Italics or capitals achieve their 
purpose if they are used sparingly, and not otherwise. 

Incidentally, it is to be noted that good copy, as a rule, 
does not require frequent emphasis. If the argument is 
inherently sound and forceful, it will for the most part carry 
its own emphasis. 

Read a Herbert Kaufman editorial, every third word 
italicized. Read Emerson's Essay on Self-Reliance, con- 
taining less than a dozen italicized words. Which is the 
more forceful? 

OTHER METHODS OF EMPHASIZING 
WORDS OR GROUPS OF WORDS 

Words, phrases and sentences can also be emphasized 
by underscoring, by setting in boldface type, and by 
printing in a color different from that in which the balance 
of the text is printed. 

UNDERSCORING is little used in up-to-date advertis- 
ing, and has little to recommend it. Compared with other 



n 





i"i\ 






PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

methods it is expensive, and it spoils the typographic 
appearance of the text. It is sometimes justifiable where 
suitable italic type is not available, but seldom otherwise. 

BOLDFACE type, of which examples are shown in 
another part of the book (see Index) is preferable to under- 
scoring in most cases where choice must be made between 
the two, as it is less expensive to use, and produces stronger 
emphasis with less detriment to the typographical appear- 
ance of the text. 

COLOR is often used as a means of securing emphasis, 
and is very effective in display advertising, but is hardly 
more effective than boldface type when used in the text of 
Catalogues and Booklets, and is at the same time much 
more expensive, since it entails separation of the type-forms 
in making up the book. Even where a book is printed in 
two or more colors, it adds considerably to the cost to print 
different portions of the text in different colors. Headings, 
marginal references and initial letters can be " separated " 
more readily than occasional words and phrases in the text, 
and can usually be displayed effectively in a separate color. 

DISPLAY advertising is ubiquitous these days, and 
scarcely requires definition. Any reader of any magazine 
or newspaper can see for himself in what manner and to 
what extent it differs from " straight reading-matter." He 
can see that a variety of type-faces and a variety of arrange- 
ments have been utilized for the purpose of giving character 
to the individual advertisements, and also, in many cases, to 
differentiate the several sections of a single advertisement, 
giving emphasis to important words, phrases, sentences, 
paragraphs, etc. 

The designing of successful display advertisement calls 
for the same sort of restraint that has already been recom- 
mended in connection with the italicization of catalogue 
and booklet texts. 



78 



(^ 



\ 



i 



i 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



METHODS OF SETTING TYPE 

All advertisements in whatever form, whether they are 
Catalogues, Booklets, Folders, Mail Cards, Newspaper or 
Magazine displays, or what not, are put in type by one of 
three standard methods : 

LINOTYPE COMPOSITION.— The Linotype is a 
keyboard-operated machine that casts type a line at a time, 
each ** line o' type " being a single piece or " slug." All 
important newspapers are set on the Linotype, and it is 
used extensively for all kinds of commercial composition. 
Individual characters in a line can not be changed when 
matter has been set on the Linotype. If a line contains an 
error, the entire line must be reset. This book was set on 
the Linotype. 



MONOTYPE COMPOSITION.— This form of compo- 
sition requires two machines : the first machine, keyboard- 
operated, cuts perforations in a strip of paper, making a 
" record " somewhat similar to those used in player-pianos. 
The " record " is then placed in a second machine, which 
casts and sets the type. In Monotyped matter each char- 
acter is a separate piece, so that any sort of corrections are 
made as readily as with foundry type. The Monotype, like 
the Linotype, is extensively used for almost every kind of 
composition. The recently published (American) Eleventh 
Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica was set on the 
Monotype. 

HAND COMPOSITION.— In setting type by hand, 
the compositor " justifies " each line by inserting spaces of 
varying thickness between the words, so as to make them 
APPEAR equally spaced. If the actual spaces were all 
alike, the spacing would appear unequal, for the reason that 
the shapes of the letters on either side of a space have a 
tendency to increase or decrease the width of the apparent 
^P^*^^-. ,^^ ^^^ phrases "bad boy" and "new view," here 

"I spaces, the apparent space between "new" 
is much greater than between "bad" and 



and "view" 



boy." 



79 



PRINCIPLES AND PR A C T I C E 

The hand compositor would make these spaces appear 
equal by inserting a wide space between " bad " and " boy," 
and a narrow one between " new " and ** view." Typeset- 
ting machines can not " justify " composition in this way, 
and It is for this reason, principally, that type must be set 
by hand where the nearest possible approach to typographic 
perfection is required. r- «, r 

The superiority of hand composition over machine com- 
position IS particularly apparent when the larger sizes of 
type are used— say, from "18-point" up. The larger the type, 
the more obvious the unequalness of the equal spacing in 
machine composition becomes. Where smaller type is used 
such as that you are now reading, the difference is not so 
noticeable. See type specimen pages in back of book. 

HAND LETTERING— WHY AND 
HOW^ TO USE IT 

American type, whether the product of a foundry or of 
a typecasting machine operated by the printer, is the best 
m the world. 

It is remarkable alike for its mechanical perfection, and 
for the unending variety of practical and beautiful faces of 
which it is the vehicle. 

The ability and enterprise of the American founders has 
been a tremendous asset to the progressive advertiser, in 
that it has enabled him, or his printer for him, steadily to 
improve the appearance and effectiveness of his business 
announcements, until they have become recognized models 
for the advertisers of every other country in the world. 

The great bulk of all of American advertising is un- 
doubtedly printed entirely, so far as its text is concerned, 
from either hand-set or machine-set type, or from electro- 
types made from the type. 

There are some advertising requirements, however, 
sometimes very simple ones, that type will not meet satis- 
factorily; and when these are encountered it becomes 
necessary, or at least desirable, to have recourse to hand- 
lettering. 

80 



r 

I 



/ 



I . 



,i 



OF DIRECT ADVERTI S I N G 

Hand-lettering, of course, is exactly what its name 
implies — the letters are drawn by hand, with pen and ink, 
and zinc etchings are made from the drawings. 

" FLEXIBILITY " OF HAND-LETTERING 

Where hand-lettering is preferable to type, it is usually 
for either one of two reasons : 

(1) It offers greater opportunities for decorative treat- 
ment and elaboration. 

(2) It is more flexible, giving a great deal more lati- 
tude in the arrangement of words and phrases, and even 
of the individual letters in a word, than is possible with 
type. 

The second of these reasons, strange as it will seem to 
some readers, is the more important of the two. The 
decoration and elaboration of a piece of text, though often 
highly DESIRABLE, is never NECESSARY. The 
PROPER ARRANGEMENT of the text, on the other 
hand, IS absolutely essential, if the advertisement is to be 
attractive and effective. 

It is therefore not the advertiser with a taste for decora- 
tive treatment in his advertising matter, or who can use 
decorative treatment to good advantage, who most needs 
to appreciate the considerations which should determine the 
employment of hand-lettering. 

It is rather the customary user of plain printing who 
needs to understand that he MUST occasionally use hand- 
lettering if he wishes his advertisements to be properly 
displayed. 

To make the point clear, let us start with an extreme 
application of it, taking for purposes of demonstration the 
single word " Havana." 

We instruct the printer to set it in caps., using a bold- 
face italic. This is the result : 

HA VANA 

81 



; ,«l 






^m^ 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



Apparently the printer has inserted spaces before and 
after the " V," separating it from the other letters, but in 
reality he has not. The word is set solid, with the letters 
as close together as the printer can possibly get them. The 
unequal spacing is due to the fact that the mechanical divi- 
sions of the types do not coincide with the optical require- 
ments of this particular combination of letters. The larger 
the type used, the more glaring the inequality will be, until 
\ye reach the point where it would be quite out of the ques- 
tion to print this word in the style of type shown, without 
unduly detracting from the appearance of the advertise- 
ment of which it is a part. The only way we can get the 
word properly spaced, in this style of letter, is to have it 
drawn by hand, thus : 

HAVANA 

So much for a single word. Probably there are not a 
great many that would present equal difficulties. When 
we come to combinations of words, however, the likelihood 
of hand-lettering being necessary is enormously increased, 
for now we have to consider not only the individual letters 
in each word, but the relation of the words to each other. 

Take the phrase: 

Buckeye 



Covers 



This as it stands is entirely satisfactory, if we wish to 
use it in this form. But suppose the arrangement of the 
advertisement in which this phrase appears requires that 
both words shall be THE SAME LENGTH. We instruct 

82 



f i 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISI N G 

the printer to make them the same length. He does it by 
spacing out the second word, and this is the result: 

Buckeye 



C 



overs 



Plainly this is not very attractive. The two words do 
not look as if they belonged together. If the advertise- 
ment is important, and especially if we expect to use the 
phrase repeatedly in this form, it will be much better to 
have it hand-lettered: 



Buckeyi 



Co 



e 



vers 



f- 



Here the two words are not only equal in length, but 
are equal in SPACING as well, which is exactly what we 
want. The improvement is certainly worth much more 
than the few dollars the artist will charge for the drawing. 

If, now, we wish to give this lettering a little more char- 
acter and distinctiveness, we have only to instruct the artist 
to elaborate it a little, and we get a logotype that we can 
use permanently and effectively in all of our advertising: 




S3 



18 -1 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

The same principle applies still more strongly if we wish 
to use two words of unequal typographic length on either 
side of a trade-mark, which is a very frequent occurrence. 
Only the letter artist can make them the same length and 
still have them properly spaced: 



BUCKEYE 




CDVERS 



in 



A design of this sort, if desired, can be " reversed ... 
making the engraving, so that the letters will appear white 
on a black ground : 



BUCKEYE 



lJ^*BWRT»?*J 



COVERS 



Similar "reversed" plates can be made from type, by 
furnishing the engraver a clean, sharp proof of the type, on 
smooth paper. 



84 



y 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 







^^^^^^^^^^M 







m 







'1^1 



■n 
#1 



^ ^ ' " ' '■ -i i ' t :! 11 11 T. 11 11 1: JT 2L it Ji n n II 1^ ^^ n 1, ,, j j 




Types of pen-and-ink decorative borders, reproduced in " line." 



8S 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 




ui;s**(i5 




PICTORIAL BORDERS 

The border on this pagfe is a sood example 
of a form of embellishment that can be used 
to good advantage in a Kreat variety of ways. 
Many folders and mailing cards, as ^vell as 
catalogues and booklets, can be made more 
effective by the use of appropriate pictorial 
borders. 

Such borders perform the double function of 
making the page ATTRACTIVE, while at the 
same time they carry a definite SUGGES- 
TION that emphasizes and amplifies the tex- 
tual description or argument. 

This particular border, suggestive of hunt- 
ing, could be used appropriately in a gun or 
ammunition catalogue, in a "vacation" book- 
let issued by a railroad company, etc. 

DECORATIVE BORDERS 

Examples of decorative borders will be 
found on another page. 

These borders are designed purely and 
simply for purposes of embellishment — to 
increase the attractiveness of the Catalogues, 
Booklets, Polders, etc., in which they are 
used. They bear the same relation to the 
text they enclose that a frame bears to a 
picture. 

The borders here shown were all made from 
pen-and-ink drawings. Less elaborate bor- 
ders, made in sections, are carried in stock 
by leading typefounders, and shown in their 
catalogues. 

Borders should be chosen with reference 
to the color and arrangement of the adver- 
tisement they are to frame, not merely with 
reference to their attractiveness, as a good 
border wrongly used is scarcely better than 
a bad border. 



4 



K 



^t*y 



i\ 



CATALOGUES AND 
BOOKLETS 

The latest edition of the Standard Dictionary defines a 
Catalogue as " a list or enumeration of names, titles, per- 
sons or things . . .," and a Booklet as " a small or unpre- 
tending book ; a little book or pamphlet." 

Neither definition gives the accepted meaning, so far as 
Advertising literature is concerned. A commercial cata- 
logue is nearly always more than a mere " list," and so-called 
" Booklets " are frequently both large and pretentious. 

A Catalogue, ordinarily, is a list of articles with descrip- 
tions and prices, and usually with illustrations, although 
there are exceptions to this last, a notable example being 
the famous Tiffany Blue Book. 

A Booklet, as distinguished from a Catalogue, is more 
commonly an extended advertisement of a single article, or 
at least it is the expression of a single central selling idea, 
instead of being an assemblage af separate advertisements. 

This is an arbitrary classification for which there is no 
specific authority, but it will serve the present purpose, 
which is merely to establish a definite meaning for the two 
words as they are used in the following pages. 

PLANNING THE CATALOGUE 

" We want to get out a new catalogue," says the manu- 
facturer — or a new booklet, as the case may be — " what 
is the first thing to be done? " 

A good answer to this question was given recently by 
a well-known educator who delivered an address before 
the students of an eastern high school. His topic, selected 
for him by the school authorities, was " Books." 

The lecturer began by saying he felt much as if he had 
been asked to talk about " Baskets." Had this topic been 
proposed, he would naturally have asked, "Baskets of 
what," and the same inquiry had suggested itself when he 
began to consider what he should say about " Books." 



II 



i 



■^f 




PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



Books, like baskets, derived their interest and impor- 
tance almost entirely from their contents. The books and 
baskets themselves were merely vehicles, the one to carry 
ideas and information, the other to carry merchandise. Any 
profitable discussion of books, therefore, must resolve itself 
into a discussion of the ideas and information which were 
to be gained by reading them. 

The distinction is one that can be pondered to advantage 
by the man who is about to get out a catalogue or booklet. 

Type and paper, designs and plates, printing and bind- 
ing, are the essentials of bookmaking, but they are far from 
being the essentials of an ADVERTISEMENT. 

Your catalogue is but the " vehicle " to carry your mes- 
sage to the people whom you are seeking to interest in your 
merchandise or service. 

The first essential is to make sure that it has something 
to carry. You can not do this by writing the copy under 
pressure at the last minute, after everything else is ready, 
and the best of all ways to begin the preparation of your 
catalogue, therefore, is to begin writing it. 



CATALOGUE AND BOOKLET SIZES 

The first point to be decided in regard to the physical 
make-up of a catalogue or booklet, as a rule, is the size and 
shape of the page. How big should the catalogue be? 

I once heard an advertising man use with telling effect, 
as he thought, a paraphrase of Abraham Lincoln's famous 
dictum that a man's legs ought to be long enough to reach 
from his body to the ground. 

The advertising man applied this to the building of cata- 
logues by saying that " a catalogue always ought to be big 
enough to contain the things that must be put into it." 

This was evidently intended as an expression of the 
speaker's belief that there was no rule, at least no reliable 
rule, for determining the proper size of the catalogue and 

88 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



that, unless its size were predetermined by text and illus- 
trations that had been prepared in advance, it might be 
" any old size " that the taste and fancy of the catalogue- 
builder might dictate. 



NO EXCUSE FOR GUESSWORK 

This, however, is far from being true. There is seldom 
any excuse for guesswork in connection with the size of a 
given catalogue or booklet. While no rules can be stated 
that will apply to all cases, there are, nevertheless, several 
constant factors, from a consideration of which it is nearly 
always possible to determine, within reasonable limits, the 
proper size of any catalogue or booklet which it is proposed 
to publish. 

V^ 1^ The first, and in many lines of business the foremost 

factor, is the custom established by competing houses, or 
by those offering catalogues of similar articles to the same 
trade. 

If most of the products competing with yours are repre- 
sented by large books, that is one strong reason in favor of 
making yours at least as large as the average. 

If you were bringing out a new automobile, you would 
find that most of the automobile catalogues issued by the 
/ established concerns are 7x11 inches, or larger. 

It would therefore be advisable to make your catalogue 
not smaller than 7x11 if you wished to be sure that it 
would attract favorable attention. 

Similarly, if you were designing a piano catalogue, you 
would find it advisable to make it 6x9, and preferably 
larger. A catalogue smaller than 6x9 would almost cer- 
4 tainly be looked upon as cheap, no matter how finely 
printed, because piano buyers have become accustomed to 
sizable, impressive-looking catalogues. 



89 



m 



PRINCIPLES AND 



PRACTICE 



HOW ILLUSTRATIONS AFFECT 

PAGE SIZES 

The next factor is concerned with the requirement that 
the page of the catalogue be sufficiently large to carry illus- 
trations that will show the advertised article advantage- 
ously, and where there is no established size-custom to serve 
as a guide, this is the most important factor. 

An automobile or piano, to recur to the examples already 
quoted, can not be illustrated effectively — the details can 
not be brought out adequately — in a plate smaller than 
5x7 mches, hence the manufacturer introducing a new car 
would be ill advised to think of getting out a catalogue 
smaller than 6x9, even if he had not found that larger sizes 
were the rule in the automobile industry. 

A collar-button or a garter, on the other hand, can be 
shown adequately in a very small illustration, and there 
would therefore be no physical necessity for making a 
collar-button or garter booklet much larger than 3x6 inches, 
^ince this size would fit a standard 6% envelope, it would 
be the logical size for such a booklet, unless there were 
some very unusual reason to the contrary. 

The character of the product advertised, its cost and 
importance, and the class of people who are asked or 
expected to buy it, are other important factors in determin- 
ing the size of a catalogue or booklet. 

Usually these factors may be assumed to have had their 
proper share in influencing the catalogue size that prevails 
in an industry where any approach to a standard size does 
prevail. 

WHEN THE CATALOGUE IS 
OVERWEIGHT 

Occasionally it will be found that because of a mis- 
calculation, or because of variation in the weight of the 
paper furnished, a catalogue that has been planned to come 
inside a certain postage limit will be over that limit. 

90 



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OF DIRECT ADVERTISIN G 

Under such circumstances the usual remedy is to trim 
off the margins of the book to whatever extent is necessary 
to effect the necessary reduction in weight. If the margins 
have been properly designed in the first place, the trimming 
naturally will not improve the appearance of the book ; yet 
on the other hand, if the amount of trim is slight, the 
appearance of the book will not be materially affected. 

Where the required trim is sufficient to detract notice- 
ably from the appearance of the book, the question to be 
decided is whether the preservation of the original margin 
is worth the extra postage, and this is determined by the 
character of the book, of the product, and of the people to 
whom the book is to be sent. 

^ If the book has been cheaply gotten up in the first place, 
with a view to presenting certain facts and pictures as eco- 
nomically as possible, a reasonable amount of trimming 
will not be objectionable. 

If, on the other hand, it is an automobile or piano cata- 
logue, or other book which depends largely on its physical 
make-up for its effectiveness, it would be a great mistake 
to sacrifice its appearance for the sake of a small saving in 
postage, for the saving, in all probability, would be more 
than offset by the diminished effectiveness of the adver- 
tisement. 

Catalogues or booklets having extension covers can not 
be trimmed after the covers have been bound on. 

ALLOWING FOR INK AND PAPER 

It is well to bear in mind, when passing on the " dummy " 
of a catalogue or booklet, that the INK will make the fin- 
ished book slightly heavier than the dummy ; and that even 
if the ink has been allowed for in the printer's estimate, you 
can have no absolute assurance that the finished book will 
weigh exactly the same as the dummy. The paper your 
printer orders may weigh a little more or a little less than 
he has figured on, since no paper runs absolutely uniform as 
to weight, and this would mean, of course, a similar varia- 
tion in the weight of the finished books. 

91 



,>«v 



PRINCIPLES 



AND PRACTICE 




...i 



f- ■ 



Unless you are willing to pay more postage than you 
have figured on, should it prove necessary, it is always better 
to have paper ordered that is slightly lighter than used in 
the dummy — either this or reduce the size of the book 
slightly BEFORE the make-up of the pages has been 
finally decided upon. 

Either alternative is much preferable to running the risk 
of marring the book by trimming it more than was intended 
when it was planned. 

Once the size has been determined there is no set rule 
for proceeding. Propositions and conditions vary widely, 
and so, naturally, must the methods of the catalogue and 
booklet builder. The following paragraphs, therefore, 
while set forth in logical order, should be regarded as sug- 
gestions, rather than as a complete program. 

SPECIMEN PAGES 

When the actual or tentative page size has been decided 
upon, one or more specimen pages should be made up, 
designs or illustrations being indicated by proofs or 
sketches, and text matter by proofs from type set for the 
purpose. When the specimen pages have been approved, 
they will serve as a basis for determining the approximate 
number of pages that will be required, which must be 
known before a useful dummy can be made up. 

SELECTING THE PAPER 

It is advisable, though not absolutely necessary, to select 
the paper for a catalogue or booklet before the dummy is 
made up. Dummies are often made of paper which it is 
not intended to use in printing the book, and the selection 
of the paper deferred, for one reason or another, until just 
before the book is ready to go to press. Where the postage 
must be kept down to a certain limit, however, and where 
printing estimates are to be asked for, it is essential to 

92 



OF DIRE C T 



ADVERTISING 



V 



k 



select the paper FIRST, so that the dummy will correctly 
represent both the weight and the material of the finished 
book. 

When selecting the paper and making up the dummy of 
a catalogue or booklet, it is well to bear in mind that it is 
not always necessary to print all of the body portion of the 
book on the same kind of paper. 

Two different papers, or even several papers, can often 
be used to advantage, sometimes as a means of improving 
the book, and other times to cut down its cost. 

HOW TO USE THE DUMMY 

Assuming that it is made of the paper which is to be 
used in printing the proposed book, the dummy should 
correctly foreshadow the book in every mechanical detail, 
with the single exception of the printing. It should be the 
correct size, shape, thickness and weight, and should show 
the proposed style of binding and finishing. 

If the dummy is found unsatisfactory in any of these 
particulars, the specifications should be modified and a new 
dummy made up. The process should be repeated as many 
times as may be necessary, until every detail is exactly 
right. It is cheaper to make new dummies than to make 
changes in a partly completed book.. 

Until it has been O. K.'d, the dummy represents the 
experimental stage in catalogue and booklet building. 
Upon being O. K.*d, it becomes the PLAN of the book, the 
basis from which all parts of the work are carried forward. 



i( 



LAYING OUT" AND "MAKING UP" 



"Laying out" a catalogue or booklet, like laying out 
any other sort of advertisement, is accomplished by indi- 
cating in the dummy the proposed arrangement of designs, 
illustrations and text. 

\yhen the type has been set and the plates of the designs 
and illustrations are in hand, the printer then assembles or 

93 



Ml 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT 




Combined decorative and illustrative treatment of 

catalogue pages. 

thT'Mayout"'*^"'' materials into pages in conformity with 

Where the text of a book reads continuously from na^e 
in^'rlf ***" illustrations are to be placed i^ jZ^lIt- 
tion to references m the text, as in the present book no 

Son "oXr thT f "i!^' *'"* '^ ''' "p •" g«"«y«- th'"lu" 

text Tt%hl ^r " f'^ll-Page ones are " broken into " the 
into p%« b?XSn' ^"' *^ "'^"'^ ^^ *^'" -">' "P 

H.^.w^'"'' ^u"" *''''*. '^ continuous but there are decorative 
Srtfin n°n.v'''''^''°"' ^^ ^°'^ '^^' '"^^"^^^ ^o be placed In 
the t WH^ ^'°"Au'' ".'^^^" P^^^^' ^ ^^y<>"t is necessary for 
tie t^ext ' P™'""' ^"' ^' "^^^ "°* *^k^ accoi^t of 

In many cases, however, it is necessary that each cata- 

hf r.r^" ^^ '°"^P^^'" ^" ^^^^^^' ^^d this ^u'rera layo^^^ 
that shows the exact location of every portion of theText 
as well as of every design and iHustration Under these 
circumstances the complete make-up is indicated by^t^^^^^ 

94 



V 



i> 



ADVERTISING 



layout, and it is only necessary for the printer to assemble 
the material in accordance with the dummy. 

If any or all of the designs or illustrations have been 
completed at the time the dummy is made up, the proofs 
should be pinned or pasted in position on the proper pages. 
(Pins are preferable wherever there is any uncertainty as 
to the proper make-up, since they permit changes to be 
made readily.) 

Where the making of the dummy precedes the comple- 
tion of the designs and illustrations, the latter are repre- 
sented by outlines or sketches, the proofs being inserted 
later as they come in from the engraver. 

The preliminary sketches in dummies are frequently 
elaborate and costly, sometimes more so than the working 
drawings. While occasionally this seems like throwing 
money away, it is usually money well spent. Except in 
the case of very simple treatments, it is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to design an artistic book without first making careful 
sketches and layouts the exact size it is to be when finished. 




An eflFective and mcreasingly popular make-up for a 
catalogue — illustrations printed on coated stock, type 
pages on antique-finish book-paper. 

95 



M 



W 



•fc^j 



>«!Sfr-«.. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



PRINCIPLES 



V- 



AND PRACTICE 




Combined decorative and illustrative treatment of 

catalogue pages. 

thT """k out" **'*^* ""aterials into pages in conformity with 

Where the text of a book reads continuously from page 
to page, and the illustrations are to be placed in juxtaposi- 
tion to references in the text, as in the present book, no 

Stlons'oT/r'fv.''^- .^l*" '^''' '' "* "P *" g^»«ys. the illus- 
trations other than full-page ones are " broken into " the 

text at the proper points, and the whole is then made up 
into pages by the printer. ^ 

Where the text is continuous but there are decorative 
designs or illustrations or both that require to be placed in 
certain positions on certain pages, a layout is necessary for 

the text ^ *'' ''"^ '' ""*^ "°* '""^^ ^«°""t °f 

In many cases, however, it is necessary that each cata- 
logue page be complete in itself, and this requires a layout 

2 weuTs' nf ' "''^^*i°':^*'°" °f every portion of the text, 
as well as of every design and illustration. Under these 
circumstances the complete make-up is indicated by the 

94 



r 



/ 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISI N G 

layout, and it is only necessary for the printer to assemble 
the material in accordance with the dummy. 

If any or all of the designs or illustrations have been 
completed at the time the dummy is made up, the proofs 
should be pinned or pasted in position on the proper pages. 
(Pins are preferable wherever there is any uncertainty as 
to the proper make-up, since they permit changes to be 
made readily.) 

Where the making of the dummy precedes the comple- 
tion of the designs and illustrations, the latter are repre- 
sented by outlines or sketches, the proofs being inserted 
later as they come in from the engraver. 

The preliminary sketches in dummies are frequently 
elaborate and costly, sometimes more so than the working 
drawings. While occasionally this seems like throwing 
money away, it is usually money well spent. Except in 
the case of very simple treatments, it is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to design an artistic book without first making careful 
sketches and layouts the exact size it is to be when finished. 




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An effective and increasingly popular make-up for a 
catalogue — illustrations printed on coated stock, type 
pages on antique-finish book-paper. 

95 



J. 
t-. . 



V' 



t\ 







mn 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

THE CENTER "SPREAD" 

When laying out a catalogue or booklet that is to consist 
of a single folded sheet, or two or more sheets folded and 
bound one within the other (a " saddle-stitched" book), it 
is well to remember that the two facing pages in the middle 
are to all intents and purposes a single page, twice the size 
of the others. This makes it possible to run an illustration 
in this space, of a size that otherwise would be out of the 
question. Notice how the "center spread" is utilized by 
advertisers in "The Saturday Evening Post," "Collier's 
Weekly," and other publications. 



Mi9M?«ttaA^r)u»> 



yriKl ^il"": 



"i Xf '^ t » ^ ' 




• • • • 







The above arrangement — prices on one page and illustrations on the 
opposite page — is cheaper and more attractive than the more common 
arrangement of separate cuts and descriptions or prices on the same 
page. Small photographs of these articles were pasted on a sheet of 
drawing board and a single half-tone made of the completed group. 

SHOULD THE FACTORY BE 
ADVERTISED? 

The question whether a picture of your factory should 
be shown in your catalogue or booklet is of more than 
casual importance. It is a question that MAY affect onlv 



? 



\ 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



a single page in the catalogue — the page on which you 
propose to display the cut of the factory. But it is much 
more likely to affect the entire catalogue, in that it may 
reflect a state of mind not favorable to the success of your 
selling effort. 

A cut of the factory, in itself, or a cut of your offices, or 
organization, will neither make nor mar your catalogue. 
But your REASON for wanting to show any of these may 
be precisely the thing that will determine the issue of your 
advertising venture. 

GETTING THE OUTSIDE VIEWPOINT 

If you have been sitting inside looking out, if you have 
been proposing to build your catalogue or booklet around 
the things that interest YOURSELF, it is a good time to 
try to get outside, to get the viewpoint of the people whose 
patronage you are seeking, and to determine whether the 
things that interest you are really the things that will prob- 
ably interest them. 

Get this outside viewpoint, and you will readily see the 
futility of advertising FACTORIES AND PRODUCTS, 
as is so often done, to people who can not reasonably be 
expected to be interested in either. 

Some products, it is true, are intrinsically interesting, 
and so is an occasional factory. The automobile is interest- 
ing, simply as a mechanical contrivance ; and its desirability 
as a conveyance is so universally recognized that it needs 
no demonstration. Automobiles, therefore, are rightly 
advertised on a competitive, not an educational, basis. The 
manufacturer knows you would like to own an automobile, 
and he does all that is necessary when he tells you how his 
is built, and why it is better than the other fellow's. 

Where this intrinsic interest and recognized desirability 
are lacking, however, it is safe to assume that the product 
and the source of the product are of secondary importance 
to the prospective buyer. 

FINDING THE POINT OF APPEAL 

What RESULTS will follow the purchase? What 
EFFECT will it have on the health, wealth, comfort or 

97 



.■,5s. I 



I 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



7 



f ! 






I 




PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



THE CENTER "SPREAD" 

When laying out a catalogue or booklet that is to consist 
of a single folded sheet, or two or more sheets folded and 
bound one within the other (a " saddle-stitched" book), it 
is well to remember that the two facing pages in the middle 
are to all intents and purposes a single page, twice the size 
of the others. This makes it possible to run an illustration 
in this space, of a size that otherwise would be out of the 
question. Notice how the " center spread ** is utilized by 
advertisers in " The Saturday Evening Post," " Collier's 
Weekly," and other publications. 




L 






A 4 A « ^ t 4 ^ A 



The above arrangement — prices on one page and illustrations on the 
opposite page — is cheaper and more attractive than the more common 
arrangement of separate cuts and descriptions or prices on the same 
page. Small photographs of these articles were pasted on a sheet of 
drawing board and a single half-tone made of the completed group. 

SHOULD THE FACTORY BE 
ADVERTISED? 

The question whether a picture of your factory should 
be shown in your catalogue or booklet is of more than 
casual importance. It is a question that MAY affect onlv 

96 






OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

a single page in the catalogue — the page on which you 
propose to display the cut of the factory. But it is much 
more likely to affect the entire catalogue, in that it may 
reflect a state of mind not favorable to the success of your 
selling effort. 

A cut of the factory, in itself, or a cut of your offices, or 
organization, will neither make nor mar your catalogue. 
But your REASON for wanting to show any of these may 
be precisely the thing that will determine the issue of your 
advertising venture. 

GETTING THE OUTSIDE VIEWPOINT 

If you have been sitting inside looking out, if you have 
been proposing to build your catalogue or booklet around 
the things that interest YOURSELF, it is a good time to 
try to get outside, to get the viewpoint of the people whose 
patronage you are seeking, and to determine whether the 
things that interest you are really the things that will prob- 
ably interest them. 

Get this outside viewpoint, and you will readily see the 
futility of advertising FACTORIES AND PRODUCTS, 
as is so often done, to people who can not reasonably be 
expected to be interested in either. 

Some products, it is true, are intrinsically interesting, 
and so is an occasional factory. The automobile is interest- 
ing, simply as a mechanical contrivance ; and its desirability 
as a conveyance is so universally recognized that it needs 
no demonstration. Automobiles, therefore, are rightly 
advertised on a competitive, not an educational, basis. The 
manufacturer knows you would like to own an automobile, 
and he does all that is necessary when he tells you how his 
is built, and why it is better than the other fellow's. 

Where this intrinsic interest and recognized desirability 
are lacking, however, it is safe to assume that the product 
and the source of the product are of secondary importance 
to the prospective buyer. 

FINDING THE POINT OF APPEAL 

What RESULTS will follow the purchase? What 
EFFECT will it have on the health, wealth, comfort or 

97 



^ 



■«' 

J* 



4\ 






^.r'-'v 



■■^■n 




PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



happiness af the buyer? Will he or she be better off after 
buying than before, and if so, why? These are the first 
things a buyer asks, and they are, therefore, the first things 
your advertisement should tell, if it is to get the buyer's 
favorable attention. The " end " should come first, and the 
means to the end afterward. 

A picture of a factory or mill should be included in a 
catalogue or booklet (or excluded from it) on precisely the 
same grounds that govern the admission of other material — 
its probable effect on the selling power of the advertisement. 

If you are selling a staple line to dealers, and it is impor- 
tant for them to know whether you are a manufacturer or a 
jobber, your factory is of primary importance, and a picture 
of it should appear in the front of your catalogue. 

WHEN THE FACTORY IS IMPORTANT 

If the product is an automobile not too well known, 
prospective purchasers will be interested to know whether 
it is a " manufactured " or an " assembled " car, and it would 
be good salesmanship to introduce the factory in evidence, 
if there is one. 

Purchasers are also interested in knowing whether the 
ostensible maker of a piano is the real maker, not a jobber, 
and it is customary to print factory pictures in piano cata- 
logues to make this point clear. The factory is not of pri- 
mary importance in either of these cases, however, and its 
proper place is in the back of the book. 

If you are selling wearing apparel, table delicacies, 
household goods other than pianos, office supplies, etc., the 
factory where they are made is of no importance whatever, 
so far as consumer advertising is concerned. 

There is, of course, no harm in running a cut of the 
factory in the back of a catalogue or booklet, even where it 
is not ** indicated " by advertising requirements, if there 
happens to be a spare page that would otherwise be left 
blank. The argument against running it in the front of 
such a book is not that it would be objectionable in itself, 
but that it w^ould occupy space which could be and should 
be used to better advantage. 

98 



•'N 



\ l^^ 



^ 



OF DIRECT 



ADVERTISING 



THE COVER 

"Introducing the Salesman 



»» 



The cover of a catalogue or booklet has frequently been 
likened to the clothes worn by a salesman, and the compari- 
son is an apt one, in that the cover, like the clothes, is a 
vital factor in making the right kind of impression on the 
man or woman to whom you are appealing. 

The attitude of a prospective customer toward a sales- 
man is determined largely by the salesman's appearance 
and manner of address, and it is precisely so with a cata- 
logue or booklet. 

If it is poorly dressed, it may be either refused an audi- 
ence or received with scant courtesy. If overdressed, it is 
regarded very much as YOU would regard the repre- 
sentations of an overdressed individual. 

Only when the catalogue is dressed right, only when it 
wears apparel suited to the occasion, does it make the favor- 
able impression that is the first essential of all successful 
selling. 

THE QUALITY OF " FITNESS " 

In catalogue and booklet covers, as in business and social 
life, " fitness is quality." A business suit at a formal wed- 
ding, a dress suit in an office, would be no more out of place, 
and only a little more certain to make an unfavorable im- 
pression, than the wrong kind of cover (not necessarily a 
cheap or ill-looking cover) on an otherwise well-designed 
and effective catalogue or booklet. 

If a booklet carries a toilet-article message to women, it 
should have a dainty cover. If heavy machinery is de- 
scribed, the cover should give an impression of strength -— 
daintiness here would be out of place. If a catalogue is 
likely to be referred to frequently by workmen in a shop, 

99 



t^w.-^ 




PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



the cover should be in dark colors, and of tough, durable 
paper. Dignity is the proper keynote for the cover of a 
booklet advertising a financial establishment, while the very 
opposite quality is most appropriate and effective in an 
advertisement of a circus. 

Besides making a favorable impression by its style and 
effectiveness, the cover may often be designed so that it will 
give definite information, or convey a definite suggestion. 



HOW COVERS CAN HELP SALES 

The paper " clothes " that the printed " salesman " 
wears, in other words, instead of merely proclaiming his 
character and respectability, may actually begin the work 
of selling the goods. 

The means of accomplishing this may be a picture, a 
conventional design, a lettered phrase, or a combination of 
any two or of all three. 

Where the superiority or advantages of an article are 
apparent at a glance, for instance, as is likely to be the case 
with small novelties, a picture of the article itself, on the 
cover of the catalogue or booklet describing it, is much 
more effective than the name of the article alone. The 
name, in fact, might be entirely devoid of significance or 
interest, unless the article were one that had been widely 
advertised. 

Where the article is not obviously interesting, and where 
its name has no recognized significance, the strongest selling 
appeal is usually made by a phrase that emphasizes some 
point of superiority that the article possesses, or by a pic- 
ture that visualizes the advantages of owning it. 

If you were to read the words " New Idea Tie " on a 
booklet cover, it is probable that you would not be par- 
ticularly interested. The words would tell you nothing 
about the tie — nothing to make you want further informa- 
tion about it. 

100 



V ^ 



J > t 



L\ 



O F 



DIRECT AD 



VERTISING 



THE COVER MUST " SAY SOMETHING " 

Change the title to " The Tie That Never Binds," and 
the effect would be quite different. If that did not interest 
vou. it would only be because you do not wear turn-over 
collars. Most men who wear such collars have more or less 
trouble getting their ties to slide through them propcrly, 
and they would be favorably disposed at the outset toward 
an advertiser who promised relief from this annoyance. 

A picture of a tie could be used effectively on this cover, 
simply to make it more attractive, but the picture would 
have little or no selling value without the phrase. 

Suppose, however, that the proposed booklet is designed 
to promote the sale of cement, by showing builders of homes 
the advantages of CONCRETE as a building material 
Here the advertiser has nothing to sell to the man who reads 
the booklet. Neither the product advertised, nor the build- 
ing material of which it is the principal ingredient, can be 
interestingly pictured or described. 

The strongest appeal to the imagination and self-interest 
of the prospect under these circumstances wiU be made by 
showing him the RESULT of using concrete, and this 
means, of course, that the basis of the cover-design should 
be a picture of a typical concrete house. 

A great deal of the most effective advertising that is 
done nowadays, whether it is Direct or General advertising, 
involves this principle of concentrating on the results that 
can be obtained by specifying or using the article adver- 
tised, rather than on the article itself. 

MAKING THE SKETCH 

The making of a sketch for a cover-design is Ae artist's 
concern. It is not to be expected that the man ordering the 
sketch will tell the artist how it is to be made; but many 
artists, even the best of them, are likely to ^g^ore some of 
the mechanical requirements that must be met m designing 

lOI 



\ 









ii 



^ 1 



PRINCIPLES AND PRAC T I C E 

a cover to be produced economically; it is therefore well 
for the advertiser to know the requirements of this part of 
the work. One of the things the artist should keep in mind, 
and that the advertiser should put into the artist's mind if 
It IS not already there, is that while it is permissible, yet it 
is not obligatory to print all cover-designs on WHITE 
paper. 

This caution is necessary for the reason that artists 
usually make sketches on white drawing-paper, adding to 
this white paper whatever color is necessary to produce 
the desired effect. In this way the possibility of producing 
the desired effect on colored paper with fewer printings is 
often lost sight of. 

HOW PAPER SAVES PRINTING 

Taking the various colors of BUCKEYE COVER as an 
example, if it is desired to produce a fire scene, it can be 
done very effectively by printing, not red and black on 
white paper, but black alone on SCARLET BUCKEYE 
COVER. The effect of the black ink on the scarlet paper 
will be much more striking than could be produced on 
white paper, because the color of the paper is much more 
intense than that of any red printing-ink. 

If it is desired to show a night scene in which are illumi- 
nated buildings, again it can be done with one printing, if 
the printing is done on BUFF BUCKEYE COVER. 

A silhouette plate is made, printing the buildings in 
black or brown, and the " illumination " is achieved simply 
by allowing the paper to show through, or in other words 
leaving it unprinted, where the windows and lights are to 
be represented. 

Similar instances might be multiplied indefinitely, but 
the argument would be the same throughout — that it is 
seldom necessary to PRINT all of the colors that are to 
appear in a cover-design. It is always desirable to consider 
at the outset whether the stock itself can not be utilized as 
one of the colors which it is desired to produce. 

102 




l,i 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



MAKE SKETCH ON THE RIGHT PAPER 

Where it is possible to determine this point before 
making the sketch — where the effect that is wanted is 
known definitely in advance — the sketch should be made on 
the paper that is actually to be used. This does away with 
all uncertainty as to the possibility of producing the desired 
effect on paper of a certain color, and it also provides the 
printer and engraver with an exact guide that indicates not 
only the results to be achieved, but also the color of the 
printing and the kind of paper that must be used. 



COVER-DESIGNS FROM TYPE 

Where the appropriation for a Catalogue or Booklet 
does not provide or allow for a drawn cover-design, the 
usual alternative is to print the title from type alone, or 
from a type-and-rule arrangement set up by the printer. 

Very often such type-and-rule cover-designs are entirely 
adequate and satisfactory, but sometimes they are not, and 
it is therefore well to bear in mind the possibility of improv- 
ing them at moderate cost by making line-engravings from 
the printers' proofs. 

By using Ben Day tints, reversing colors, etc., the 
engraver can modify a type-design in many ways, and thus 
greatly increase the probability of its meeting the exact 
requirements of the advertiser, and of the cover on which 
the design is to be used. 

A type-and-rule border, as an example, may be satisfac- 
tory as to general arrangement, and may look well when 
proved in black and white, while being entirely too weak 
when printed in colored ink on a colored stock. By revers- 
ing the colors, however, the effect on the dark-colored stock 
may be exactly what is wanted. 

The accompanying plate shows nine miniature cover- 
designs, all of which were made from the same copy, repre- 
senting a type-and-rule arrangement such as would be set 

103 






P 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 





k 


^ ^W'- '"./ ► 


4 



■.♦■ 


BUTKFYE 
COVERS 













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BUCKEYE 
COVERS 




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BUCKEYE 
COVERS 






^^^ 













BUCKEYE 
COVERS 












BUCKEYE 
COVERS 





P 

buckeye! i 

COVERS! 



Nine variations on a " type-and-rtile " theme. These cover- 
designs were all produced from the same copy by using " Ben Day 
tints in combination with solid color. 



\, 



\\ 




OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



up by a printer. These reproductions give only a limited 
idea of the extent to which a single simple design can be 
modified, for the reason that here only one color has been 
used. If another color were added the possible modifica- 
tions would be more than doubled. 

This method can be utilized advantageously, not only 
as a means of improving an unsatisfactory type-and-rule 
cover-design, but also as a means of securing a variety of 
effects from a satisfactory design that is to be used on a 
series of advertisements. 



SELECTING THE COVER-PAPER 

When selecting the stock for the cover of a Catalogue or 
Booklet, assuming it has not already been selected by the 
artist who made the cover-design, the most important point 
to keep in mind is that you are choosing, not a finished 
product, but a printing material — the BACKGROUND, 
in other words, against which the cover-design of the book 
is to be displayed. 

Of several unprinted samples that you examine, whether 
in dummy form or not, the one that you find most attractive 
may be precisely the one that will prove least attractive, 
and that will have least selling value when YOUR COVER- 
DESIGN is printed upon it. If that particular paper hap- 
pens also to be expensive, as compared with the one that 
would have been most suitable, you will have thrown away 
a more or less considerable amount of money, besides 
putting a serious limitation upon the effectiveness of your 
book. 

AVOIDING COSTLY MISTAKES 

Most, if not all, of the mistakes that are made in select- 
ing cover-papers would be avoided if the selections were 
made from PROOFS OF THE DESIGN THAT IS TO 
BE USED instead of from sample-books or unprinted 
sample sheets. 

los 



tfal 
^ ': T 




^"l; 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



When a number of unprinted dummies or sample sheets 
are examined, it is natural to prefer the one that is intrin- 
sically the most attractive — the one with an unusual 
texture or a novel coloring. It is also entirely natural for 
the printer to count on this fact when he is making up the 
dummies. He is out to get the order, and if he has to do it 
by selling blank paper, he can not be blamed for picking the 
kind that is easiest to sell. 

The practice is costly for both the advertiser and the 
printer, however, because the WRONG paper, which is as 
likely as not to be chosen by this method, may prove the 
most troublesome of all for the printer to manipulate, while 
at the same time being the least satisfactory when printed. 

PAYING MORE AND GETTING LESS 

Crash Finish BUCKEYE COVER, as an example, costs 
considerably more than Antique Finish. As a manufactured 
product, it is actually worth the higher price. But it is 
worth the higher price TO THE ADVERTISER in a 
relatively small number of cases. It must be used exactly 
right, or it is exactly the WRONG paper to use. If a cover- 
design consists of an arrangement of light-face type and 
rule, and Crash Finish BUCKEYE COVER (or other 
rough-finished paper) is selected, the higher price will be 
paid, not for a better result than could be produced on 
Antique Finished paper, but for precisely the opposite, a 
poorer result. The light-face type-and-rule arrangement 
will not show up satisfactorily on the Crash Finish paper, 
and the printer will be likely to spoil his type printing it 
into the bargain. 

FINDING THE RIGHT COVER 

Misalliances of this sort, mismatings of papers and 
designs, with their attendant waste of time and money, can 
be avoided only by careful selection and adaptation, making 
the design fit the paper if for any reason it is desired to use 
a certain paper willy-nilly; but preferably by selecting the 

io6 



-?' 



./ 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



paper on which a predetermined design can be displayed 
to best advantage. 

Unless the design has been drawn by an experienced 
commercial artist who has selected the paper and demon- 
strated its suitability by making a preliminary sketch on it, 
the best plan is to have the plates proved up on the paper 
or papers that SEEM suitable, basing the final selection 
on the actual results that are thus produced. 

WHEN THE PAPER MUST BE 
SELECTED FIRST 

In this way the danger of selecting an unsuitable paper 
and perhaps paying more for it than for the paper that 
would have been suitable, will be eliminated. 

Where this is not practicable — where for any reason 
the paper must be selected before the design has been 
decided upon — the safest way is to choose a cover-paper on 
which the widest possible variety of designs can be printed 
acceptably, avoiding dark colors and very rough or uneven 
surfaces. 

WHAT OUR RECORDS SHOW 

In this connection the sales records of BUCKEYE 
COVERS are not without significance. Of the four finishes 
manufactured (Antique, Ripple, Crash and Plate), the 
Antique Finish so far outsells the three others that it makes 
up the bulk of our output. The most attractive specimens 
that we receive from users of BUCKEYE COVERS, more- 
over, are on this finish. The lighter colors are equally pre- 
dominant, as compared with the darker ones. 

Almost any representative collection of high-grade Cata- 
logues and Booklets will be found to reflect this preference 
for the lighter-colored antique finished cover-papers, and 
it is therefore obvious that they are the advertiser's " best 
bet " whenever it is not definitely known that better results 
can be produced by using another kind. 

107 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



•^ANTIQUE FINISH" MADE BY 
MANY MILLS 

To make sure that the foregoing paragraphs are not 
construed as an advertisement of BUCKEYE COVERS, it 
should be stated that antique-finished cover-papers are 
included in many other cover lines, although sometimes 
under another designation — as " Eggshell " finish, for 
example. The cover and end sheets of this book (Antique 
Finish BUCKEYE COVER) may be taken as fairly repre- 
sentative of this class of papers. 



COVER STYLES 

INTEGRAL COVERS.— The simplest and cheapest — 
and least effective — method of covering a booklet is not 
to use a separate cover at all, but to print the entire book on 
the same paper, the two outside leaves serving as the front 
and back covers respectively. Many small pamphlets, and 
occasionally a large one, are gotten out in this form, and for 
some purposes it is entirely adequate. The outside leaves 
of such a book may be given somewhat the appearance of 
separate covers by printing a design that entirely covers the 
stock, either on the front page alone, or on both the front 
and back pages. To be fully effective, the plates should be 
made somewhat larger than the finished book is to be, so 
that the design will " bleed off "— that is, run clear off the 
edges of the paper, when the book is trimmed. The " Farm 
Telephone Tale " booklet in the accompanying illustration 
is an example of this treatment, although intended primarily 
to suggest the use of half-tone cover-designs on smooth- 
finished papers. 

FLUSH TRIMMED COVERS.— When a separate 
cover is bound onto the body of a book before the latter has 
been trimmed, and the two are then trimmed together, mak- 
ing the cover pages the same size as the body pages, the 

io8 



9j^- T 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



cover is said to be " flush trimmed." This is the cheapest 
method of finishing a covered book, since only one set of 
trimming operations is required, and the binding process is 
considerably simplified. The cover of this book is flush 
trimmed. Where the appearance of a book is of great 
importance, however, and particularly if the book consists 




Types of cover-designs printed from half-tones on 
plaie finish BUCKEYE COVER. The one on the left 
in two colors ; the other in one color. 



of a comparatively small number of pages, it is usually 
advisable to specify an extension cover. (Flush trimming is 
much more acceptable on thick books than on thin ones.) 

EXTENSION COVERS.— If you look over any col- 
lection of high-grade catalogues and booklets, you will find 

109 



5. a 



khl 



,'■ (, 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



that the covers of most of them extend from an eighth to a 
quarter of an inch beyond the text pages on the side oppo- 
site the binding, and also on the top and bottom. These 
are called ** extension covers." They are more expensive 
than flush-trimmed covers, because the body of the exten- 
sion-covered book must be stitched or stapled and trimmed 
BEFORE the cover is put on. Putting on the cover is a 
separate operation, and requires more care than if the book 
were to be flush trimmed. If the extension cover carries a 
" bled off " design, it must be trimmed AFTER it is printed, 
but before it is bound onto the book; otherwise the cover 
may be trimmed to the exact size before it is printed, and it 
will then require no further trimming. 

SECONDARY COVERS.— These are extra sheets of 
cover paper inserted between the outside cover and the 
body of a book, and they are used, in the majority of cases 
at least, purely as an embellishment. Secondary covers 
are sometimes the same size as the outside cover. Occa- 
sionally they are trimmed to a size between the two. 
Secondary covers do not add greatly to the cost of a fine 
catalogue or booklet, and as a rule they do add very greatly 
to its attractiveness. 

" BOARD COVERS " are covers which have been 
stiffened by reinforcing them with cardboard, strawboard 
or other suitable material. Where boards are used, the 
covering material may be either paper or cloth. The major- 
ity of the books offered for sale in book stores are examples 
of board-reinforced cloth bindings. Paper board covers are 
seen more frequently on children's books and on special 
holiday books. The number of commercial catalogues 
issued with such covers is relatively small, but is growing. 

FLEXIBLE LEATHER COVERS are too expensive 
to be considered in connection with catalogues intended for 
general distribution, except in very exceptional cases. 
Many concerns, however, have found that when they are 
getting out a new catalogue, it pays to have a limited num- 
ber of copies bound in flexible leather, for distribution to 

no 






O F 



DIRECT ADVERTISING 



the company's officers, stockholders, salesmen, or preferred 
customers, according to circumstances. Board bindings are 
also used in the same manner. The names of the individuals 
to whom the copies are sent, are sometimes printed or 
stamped upon the covers of such special editions. 

Part of any edition of a catalogue or booklet may be 
bound in paper or cloth boards, or in leather, without refer- 
ence to the style of cover and binding that is being used 
for the balance of the edition. 

LINING AND END SHEETS.— By referring to the 
front and back covers of this book, it will be seen that inside 
each of them a separate sheet has been pasted, one-half of 
each pasted sheet forming a flyleaf. This is known as a 
pasted-down end sheet. In some books the end sheet is 
bound separately to the body of the book, forming a secon- 
dary cover, and the pasted sheet runs continuously across 
the inside of the cover from the front to the back. The 
pasted sheet is then known as a lining sheet. End sheets 
were used in the present instance simply to give the book a 
more finished appearance. Had the cover been embossed, 
however, the end sheets would have served the additional 
purpose of covering up the reverse side of the embossing, 
which otherwise would have detracted considerably from 
the effectiveness of the book. 

Lining and end sheets together, or pasted-down end 
sheets alone, add greatly to the appearance of a book, and 
while they also add considerably to the cost of the binding, 
it is not always necessary to increase the cost of THE 
BOOK in anything like the same proportion. Where it is 
proposed to use a single cover made of a very expensive 
paper, as an example, it will often be found that the book 
can be made much more effective by using a less costly 
paper, putting the saving into lining and end sheets. This 
is a possibility that it is always worth while to consider 
when deciding upon the make-up of an important catalogue 
or booklet. 



Ill 



ffl! 



M' 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 

SELLING POSSIBILITIES OF THE 

BACK COVER 

Most advertisers realize the importance of printing 
effective designs on the front covers of their catalogues and 
booklets. The habit of considering the selling possibilities 
of the back cover is less common, but it is nevertheless one 
that should be cultivated. The conclusion of a selling story 
is hardly of less importance than the introduction, and in 




INDEX 






&w« "Hvw to OtUr 



Oft wmiA* frool ^f • of vo*««i. 




Catalogue with index printed on inside of extension of back 
cover. The shaded flap was folded around the edge of the closed 
book to enable it to be mailed without an envelope. This flap would 
be omitted if the catalogue were to be mailed in an envelope. 
BUCKEYE COVER was used for this job. 

many cases the back cover of a book can be made to provide 
a conclusion that will greatly increase the pulling power of 
the advertisement. 

Where order blanks, information blanks, return postals, 
coin cards, samples, etc., are to be sent out with a catalogue, 
it is often advantageous to incorporate them in the cover or 
attach them to it in such a way that they will be before the 

112 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



^< 








f I 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



prospect while he is reading the book. This is particularly 
true of indexes and other tables that must be constantly 
referred to. 

In the " Tools With the Quality Mark " Catalogue here 
illustrated, it will be noted that the Index is printed on the 
inside of an extension of the back cover, where it is much 
more readily consulted than if it were printed on a page in 
the body of the book. 

Another catalogue issued by the same advertiser had a 
similar extension on the back cover, which carried an order 
blank and a space for memoranda. 

The Lyon & Healy music roll bulletin, shown on another 
page, had a perforated reply postal incorporated in the 
cover, the customer's name being filled in so that it served 
as both signature and address. The FRONT cover carried 
the postal in this case, the reason for which will be apparent 
from the illustration. Had the booklet been intended for 
mailing in an envelope, and had a designed front cover been 
used, the perforated postal could have been incorporated 
just as readily — and just as advantageously — in the back 
cover. 

BINDING STYLES 

Most catalogues and booklets are made up, so far as 
their text pages are concerned, of either a single folded 
sheet, or two or more sheets folded one within the other. 
Such books as a rule are SADDLE STITCHED, which 
means that they are held together by wire staples (inserted 
by machinery) through their backs. " The Saturday Even- 
ing Post " is bound in this way. If the cover of a saddle- 
stitched book is to be flush trimmed (See " Cover Styles "), 
it is put on before the book is stitched, and the two stapled 
together at one operation. If an extension cover is pro- 
vided, the body of the book must be stitched and trimmed 
first, and the cover stitched on afterward. 

Books can be saddle stitched only up to a certain thick- 
ness, depending upon the weight of the paper, the number 

114 



v^i?'/ 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



of pages, the character of the book, etc. Thicker books, 
made up of two or more folded sheets or sections, must be 
either SEWED, as this book is, or SIDE STITCHED, as 
most of the popular magazines and many commercial cata- 
logues are. Side stitching is the cheaper method, and sew- 
ing the better, as it allows the book to open flat. The covers 
of side-stitched and sewed books as a rule are glued to the 
backs. 

SILK CORD or floss or other suitable material can be 
added as an embellishment to either saddle-stitched or side- 
stitched books. The necessary holes are punched by ma- 
chinery, and the cord or floss inserted and tied by hand. 
Thin books are sometimes saddle stitched with silk floss by 
machinery, but not many concerns are equipped to do this. 



LOOSE-LEAF CATALOGUES 

Permanent bindings do not meet the requirements of all 
advertisers. Conditions often make it necessary or desir- 
able to issue catalogues in such form that sheets can be 
readily inserted or removed, and a few of the approved 
methods of accomplishing this are shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. 

In the " Moreland " Truck Catalogue the separate sheets 
were punched and attached to a fold in the cover by means 
of ordinary McGill paper fasteners. The cover was a single 
sheet of paper, the method of folding which can be seen by 
looking closely at the illustration. 

In the " ^Valker Balance Drive " Catalogue, the separate 
sheets were tied with a ribbon to a flap on the center fold 
of a three-fold cover. The sheets on the outside folds are 
permanent tip-ons (separate sheets pasted to the cover) 
showing details of construction. 

The "Armleder " Catalogue consists simply of a number 
of punched sheets tied into the cover by a silk cord. 

The "Argo Electric" Catalogue was more properly 
speaking a portfolio, since the sheets were inserted loose in 

"5 



*'\ 



■ 1 



1; 

f . 



[l I 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



the cover, and not attached to it in any way. The purpose 
here was not so much to anticipate the necessity of remov- 
ing or adding sheets, as to provide illustrations of the 
various models in sXich form that they could be arranged 
side by side for easy comparison. 




A few novel styles of " loose-leaf " catalogues. See references in text. 

A recent Packard Motor Car Catalogue, probably 
designed with a similar end in view, consisted of a number 
of separate sheets carrying the illustrations of the various 
models, while the text was incorporated in a separate bound 

ii6 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



>^v 



/^ap. 




Novel and eflFective treatment of return post-card suitable for use in 
catalogue, booklet or folder. Post-card can be integral, or a separate 
card attached by inserting corners in slots cut in book or folder. 



i;: 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



pamphlet, the two being enclosed in a portfolio. Other 
catalogues have the text pages permanently bound into a 
cover, while the sheets carrying the illustrations are inserted 
in a pocket in the back of the book. 



UTILIZING WASTE COVER- STOCK 

Occasionally an advertiser finds it necessary to get out a 
catalogue or booklet of a size that makes it impossible to 
cut the cover economically out of a stock size of cover- 
paper. 

If the edition is to be a large one, the cover-paper may 
be obtainable in a special size that will cut without waste. 
For small editions, however,* it is necessary to use stock 
sizes of paper, and this means that a part of each sheet will 
be wasted, so far as serving the purpose for which it was 
purchased is concerned. 

This waste the advertiser pays for, whether he uses it or 
not, and it is therefore well to bear in mind the possibility 
of using it for other small advertising forms. Often this can 
be done very effectively and economically. 

The illustration shows a stock-size sheet of cover-paper 
from which four covers are to be cut, leaving a strip of waste 
stock from which a small folder or envelope stuffer and two 
post-cards can be obtained. The edition in this case is pre- 
simied to be large enough to make it economical to print the 
cover " four on " from four duplicate plates — that is, print 
four complete covers at each impression, printing one side 
of the folder and postals at the same time. 

If the cover were printed " two on," half of the waste 
strip could be printed with the two upper plates and the 
other half with the lower; or all of the waste strip could be 
printed with the two right-hand plates. 

*A "small" edition, from the paper maker's standpoint, is one 
requiring less than a ton of paper. The number of copies would, of 
course, depend upon the size of the book. 



\ 



^ 



Viv/ 



\ 



OF DIRECT 



ADVERTISING 



If the covers were printed one at a time, it is obvious 
that the stock could be cut so that one quarter of the sheets 
would carry a cover and the folder, the two being printed 
together, and another quarter would carry a cover and the 
two postals. 




Acme 






Thr- 

Acme PmNrCo, 

CHICAGO. ILL. 



ACME 



f 



Acme Print Co 

CHICAGO ILL 




Acme Print Co 

CHicwco ai. 



Utilizing "waste" cover-stock. Shaded portion shows folder 
and two postals printed at same impression as the covers, on paper 
that would ordinarily be discarded. 

It is not always practicable and economical to print 
waste stock in this way, but the stock alone is worth saving 
if it is a good quality of cover-paper. 

Further suggestions in connection with the utilization 
of stock that would otherwise be wasted will be found under 
the heading " Envelope Stuffers." (See Index.) 



ii8 



119 



MB 



Ih 



^ 



1 



« 



! 'I \ 



I 



PRINCIPLES AND PRAC T I C E 

MAILING CATALOGUES AND 

BOOKLETS 

Importance of Using Suitable Envelopes 

" How about the envelopes?" is a question that ought 
to be in the mind, if not before the eye, of every man charged 
with the duty of getting out a catalogue or booklet intended 
for mailing. 

The envelopes in which a catalogue is mailed are usually 
ordered in a hurry, at the last minute — and they usually 
look it. More advertisers would make their catalogue 
envelopes the subject of forethought instead of afterthought 
if they could see some of the catalogues after they have been 
through the mails. 

Recently a large eastern manufacturer had occasion to 
write to some two hundred representative concerns for their 
catalogues, and of these less than ten per cent were received 
in perfect condition. The others were soiled, abraded and 
torn to a greater or lesser extent, due to the use of cheap, 
flimsy envelopes. 

Such envelopes are a doubly expensive "economy." 
They make a bad impression by their own untidy appear- 
ance, and they detract from the effectiveness of the cata- 
logue or booklet to just the extent that they allow it to be 
defaced by the wear and tear of transportation. 

The remedy, or rather the preventive that is better than 
any remedy, is to insure the effectiveness of your fine cata- 
logues and booklets by mailing them in substantial, attrac- 
tive envelopes, preferably envelopes made of the same paper 
as the covers. 

"ENVELOPES TO MATCH" means the highest 
attainable degree of effectiveness in catalogue mailing, and 
it is a good phrase to write into your specifications. 

lao 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



V 



V. / 




BUCKEYE COVER ENVELOPES carry catalogues and book- 
lets more safely than ordinary envelopes, and present them to the 
prospect more attractively. The above are representative exam- 
ples, showing the effect of appropriate printing. 



PRINCIPLES AND 



PRACTICE 



# 
r. 



m 



i; 



I 



HOUSE ORGANS 

Most Direct Advertisements, and in fact most advertise- 
ments of whatever sort, are made up of definite selling 
appeals, setting forth the merits of the commodity or service 
advertised, and giving the reasons, sometimes real and 
sometimes imaginary, why it will be to the advantage of 
the reader to do business with the advertiser. 

Modern merchandising, however, is complex and many- 
sided. It is not quite so simple as A B C, or rolling off a 
log, and out of its complexity have grown many conditions 
which are not met adequately by the ordinary forms of 
advertising. 

IMPORTANCE OF "GOOD WILL" 

A jobber sells a line of staple articles. He has no dem- 
onstrable advantages over his competitors. His merchan- 
dise is not of better quality than theirs, nor is it sold at more 
attractive prices. His customers buy from him largely on 
personal grounds. Instead of liking his goods better than 
they like competing goods, they like HIM better, or they 
like his representatives better; it comes to the same thing. 

If such a jobber has a small number of customers, he 
may retain their good will by making frequent calls. If he 
has a large number of customers, or wishes to get more 
than his share of the total business in his line, some other 
method of creating and maintaining good will must be 
devised. 

"TAKING THE FACTORY TO THE 

CUSTOMER" 

A manufacturer of motor cars finds that he never loses 
a sale when he has an opportunity to take prospective cus- 
tomers through his factory. This suggests the advisability 
of takmg the factory to prospective purchasers. How shall 
this be done? 

Another manufacturer has a large number of salesmen, 
and it is necessary to keep them fully informed as to the 
progress of the business, telling them what the organiza- 



122 



V 



\lJ| / 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

tion as a whole is doing, what competitors are doing, etc. 
The problem is to find the most effective method of dissem- 
inating this information periodically. 

WHAT IS A HOUSE ORGAN ? 

A House Organ is a periodical publication, usually in 
booklet or pamphlet form, issued by an advertiser for the 
purpose of disseminating information and suggestions that 
will influence sales, but which for one reason or another 
can not be included advantageously in advertisements in 
other forms. 

" There is nothing like a House Organ," says Frederick 
C. Kuhn, editor of magazines for Sherwin-Williams Com- 
pany, Cleveland, " for kindling that spirit of sincere business 
friendship which is so essential to mutually profitable trade 
relations. Especially is this true with the smaller dealers 
scattered in remote corners away from the busy city. The 
salesman may make a brief visit now and then, seeking an 
order; occasionally a letter is written soliciting trade for 
a new product; but the House Organ brings with it news 
of the activities of merchants in similar business, sales and 
merchandising plans, suggestions for getting and retaining 
new customers, advertising hints, and is brimful of real 
human-interest copy." 

Sometimes the House Organ is made up entirely of 
" news " having reference to the advertiser's business ; 
sometimes it is made up partly of extraneous matter ; occa- 
sionally the extraneous matter comprises the bulk of the 
publication and the " advertising " is incidental. 



MAKING THE HOUSE ORGAN 
INTERESTING 

The essential thing in publishing a House Organ is to 
make it so interesting that the people to whom it is sent 
will look forward to it from month to month, and if the 
advertiser can find little or nothing of interest to say about 
his own business or products, the necessary interest-sustain- 
ing material must be secured from other sources. Most 

123 




#f 



I 



I 

'1 






h 



' t. 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACT ICE 

products can be made interesting, however, at least to peo- 
ple who are in a position to buy or use them, and it is well 
to make sure your business is an exception, before filling 
your House Organ with material that is devoid of specific 
advertismg value. 



(( 



HIGH MORTALITY '' AMONG HOUSE 
ORGANS — AND ITS LESSON 

The most significant thing about the House Organ as 
an advertising medium is what "Printers* Ink" has de- 
scribed as the "high mortality" among house organs — 
meaning that few of them are kept up out of the total num- 
ber started. 

The reason for this is that it is mighty easy to start a 
house organ, but mighty hard to keep it going after the first 
two or three numbers, unless the advertiser has started with 
a very definite idea of what he proposes to do and exactly 
how he proposes to do it. 

Many an advertiser has put into the first number of his 
house organ all of the material that he had been accumu- 
latmg for months or years, only to find that material for 
succeeding numbers was not easily procurable. 

Don't get out a house organ unless you need it. Have 
a definite purpose in view. Don't get out the first number, 
even then, unless you know where the material for the others 
is coming from. 

REGULARITY is essential in publishing a house 
organ. " Now and then " are not good publication dates. 

SYNDICATE HOUSE ORGANS.— There are several 
concerns who make a business of printing house organs, 
supplymg part or all of the reading-matter, according to the 
requirements of the advertiser. 

BOOKS ABOUT HOUSE ORGANS.- There arc ex- 
cellent books on the market, giving full information about 
every phase of the preparation and distribution of house 
organs, and these can be consulted advantageously by any 
advertiser who is seriously interested in this form of Direct 
Advertising. 

i«4 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



FOLDERS AND BROADSIDES 

The flexibility of Direct Advertising (as compared with 
announcements in periodicals) has already been touched 
upon, in a previous section of this book. It has been pointed 
out that the Direct Advertiser is unhampered by many of 
the restrictions that are inseparable from General Advertis- 
ing. The size, shape, color, character, quantity and distribu- 
tion of his advertisements are all within his own control. 

Some kinds of Direct Advertising, however, are more 
flexible than others, more easily and exactly adaptable to 
the advertiser's individual requirements, and it is in Folders 
and Broadsides — which latter are simply large folders — 
that this desirable quality finds fullest expression. 

In getting out Booklets, Catalogues, Letters, there are 
certain conventions as to size and arrangement that must 
be observed — certain restrictions that are imposed by the 
forms themselves. In getting out folders no such restric- 
tions or conventions are encountered. Folders or Broad- 
sides may be of any size that the recipient can conveniently 
handle and read, and they may be arranged and printed and 
folded in any manner that seems best to serve the purpose 
of the advertiser. 



LARGE SIZES MAKE BETTER DEMON- 
STRATIONS POSSIBLE 

Large folders obviously are more impressive than small 
ones, but this is by no means the only reason — very often 
it is not at all a conclusive reason — for using them. Mere 
bigness, of itself, does not sell goods. The reason why big 
folders in many cases have vastly greater selling power than 
smaller ones, is because they permit picture demonstrations 
and displays that otherwise would be out of the question. 

In many catalogues and booklets, for example, the larg- 
est illustration that can be printed on a page — or even on a 

125 



T-^ 



PRIN C IPLES AND PRACTICE 



f 



t , 







" The world's greatest medium for Direct Advertising." All of the 
above folders were printed on BUCKEYE COVERS. 

126 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

" center spread " — is too small to show all of the important 
details of the article to advantage, and separate pictures of 
these must be printed on other pages. 

In large folders, a much wider range of articles can be 
displayed adequately in single illustrations. Where this is 
not possible — where for one reason or another certain 
details must be shown separately, the article may still be 
demonstrated more clearly and strikingly in a large folder 
by grouping several of the detail illustrations around a larger 
one of the complete article, and running an arrow or con- 
necting line from each of the small illustrations to the corre- 
sponding part on the large one. 



HOW SMALL FOLDERS CUT SELLING 

COSTS 

The argument in favor of using large folders (when 
conditions require them) should not be interpreted as ^n 
argument against using small ones. Because a large folder 
happens to derive most of its effectiveness from its size, it 
does not necessarily follow that smaller folders are ineffec- 
tive. Large folders meet certain advertising requirements 
better than they are met by any other advertising mediimi. 
Small and moderate-sized folders meet other requirements 
equally as well. 

In one respect the small folder is the most effective of 
all Direct Advertising forms — it can be made to carry your 
selling story to a given number of " prospects " at a cost so 
low that the postage alone will represent 70 or 75 per cent, 
or even in extreme cases a larger percentage, of the total 
expenditure. This obviously would not be true of a small 
edition. To be produced so cheaply, the folders would have 
to be ordered in considerable quantities. 

It is not often necessary, however, nor is it often advis- 
able, to attempt to get out folders so cheaply. Appearance 

127 




^n 




§1 



:l 



m 






PRINCIPLES AND PRACT ICE 

is an important factor in determining the ratio between the 
cost of a folder and the money it brings in. and appearance 
has to be paid for. 




Strong poster treatment of display lines, especially suitable for 
colored folders. Original in dark blue and black on scarlet BUCKEYE 
COVER. 



DESIGN AND ARRANGEMENT OF 

FOLDERS 

SIZE. — This should be determined with reference to 
the size of the largest illustration it is proposed to show, 
the grouping of other illustrations in connection with it, 
the amount of text matter that is to be printed, and the size 
and shape that the folder will be when ready to mail. If 
this last point is not given due consideration in determining 
the size of the sheet, it may be found that it can not be 
folded handily without producing a clumsy " piece " of mail 
matter. 

128 



X»- 






OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

METHOD OF FOLDING.— This should be decided 
upon BEFORE the layout for the folder is made, so that the 
printing of type or illustrations on or across the folds may 
be avoided, so far as is practicable. This applies particu- 
larly to small type and illustrations, which will be more 
attractive and readable if arranged in columns or sections 
between the folds. 

ARRANGEMENT OF TEXT.— When laying out a 
large folder containing considerable reading matter, bear in 
mind that only very large type can be read easily if set in 
unbroken lines across the full width of a wide page. The 
smaller sizes of type, say from eighteen-point down, should 
be set in columns with plenty of white space between, the 
width of the columns being proportioned to the size of the 
type. Your printer or the editor of any printing- trade jour- 
nal can give you helpful advice on this point if you should 
be in need of it. 

THE COVER-DESIGN.— Everything that has been 
set forth concerning the importance of cover-designs, in 
the section of this book devoted to Catalogues and Booklets, 
applies with equal force to folders. The folder, like the 
booklet, should carry a picture or legend designed to attract 
the attention and stimulate the interest of the man or 
woman to whom the folder is sent. The reason so many 
advertisers neglect this, in all probability, is because they 
find it possible to display their advertisements effectively 
on one side of a sheet of paper, and they are then reluctant 
to pay for additional presswork (where required) merely 
for the sake of displaying a small design on the outside of 
the folder. Any advertiser, however, who will examine 
critically the folders that reach his desk, will scarcely be 
able to avoid the conviction that it pays to print folders on 
both sides, even if one side carries nothing but the '* cover- 
design." 

COMBINED COVER -DESIGN AND ADDRESS 
LABEL. — In the case of a very large folder intended to be 
printed on one side of the sheet only, and where to print a 

129 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 




11 



I 



" cover-design " on the other side would be unduly expen- 
sive, approximately the same result can be achieved by 
printing the design on gummed paper, and using the 
gummed sheets as address labels. 

RETURN POST CARDS 

Return post cards are sent out with Catalogues, Book- 
lets, Folders, etc., for the convenience of the recipient in 
responding, the object of the advertiser being, of course, to 
increase the number of responses. 

Where the prospect is asked to fill out and mail the card 
as a favor to the advertiser, the card should be stamped by 
the advertiser. Some advertisers believe in stamping the 
cards even where no such favor is involved, but this seems 
to be contrary to the practice of the majority. There is no 
reason why a man should be bribed to respond to an adver- 
tisement when presumably he is acting in his own interest, 
and so far as business houses are concerned, it is not likely 
that a stamped card would be used any more readily than an 
unstamped one. A stamped card would undoubtedly stand 
a better chance of being returned from the average resi- 
dence, however, since people do not always keep stamps on 
hand in their homes. 

GOVERNMENT POST CARDS are furnished to 
advertisers in sheets, where required, each original sheet 
containing 48 cards. These sheets the printer can cut up 
into smaller sheets of 4, 8, 12, etc., printing each sheet from 
duplicate plates at one impression, thus effecting a substan- 
tial saving in presswork where a large number of cards is 
required. Post cards in sheets should be ordered in advance, 
as the local postoffice m.ay not have them in stock. 



,\ 



130 



ENVELOPE STUFFERS 

The unlovely phrase at the head of this chapter is the 
accepted designation of a form of advertising that is deserv- 
ing, not only of a more appropriate name, but also of much 
more serious and systematic attention than it ordinarily 
receives. 

The use of envelope stuffers is extensive, but it is almost 
equally desultory. They are gotten out on impulse, and 
mailed whenever the mailing department happens to think 
of it. They are rarely made an integral part of an adver- 
tising campaign, and it is still more rare that any attempt 
is made to gauge their effectiveness. 

There are two circumstances which recommend the 
envelope stuffer to the more careful consideration of every 
progressive merchant, manufacturer and advertising man: 

(1) Every piece of first and third class mail matter that 
goes out, weighing less than the full number of ounces for 
which postage has been affixed, represents a neglected 
opportunity to get additional advertising matter carried 
FREE. 

(2) Many printing jobs, as ordinarily contracted for, 
represent neglected opportunities to get this additional 
advertising matter MANUFACTURED free, or nearly free. 



GETTING " ALMOST FREE " 
ADVERTISING 

The envelope stuffer, in other words, costs nothing to 
mail, and it costs next to nothing to manufacture, if proper 
advantage is taken of the occasional opportunities that arise 
in connection with various forms of printing. 

On another page of this book will be found an illustra- 
tion showing how an envelope stuffer or small folder may 
be printed as part of a booklet cover, on stock that would 
otherwise be wasted. 

131 



rff 



w 




t 



PRINCIPLES AND PR A C T I C E 

It is obvious that the same principle can be applied in 
many ways, and it is equally obvious that the stuffer need 
not always be printed on " stock that would otherwise be 
wasted.** 



UTILIZING "WASTE" PRESSWORK 

The presswork, in fact, represents a greater saving than 
the stock, and for this reason it will be found profitable to 
order the additional small amount of stock needed, when- 
ever you have a job going through of such size and char- 
acter that a suitable stuffer can be printed at the same time, 
without increasing the presswork. 

It is of course necessary to take paper sizes into consid- 
eration, as printed forms are planned to cut out "even** 
\yherever possible, and under such circumstances the addi- 
tion of a stuffer would necessitate the use of a larger size 
of paper, which might or might not be practicable. 

Booklet and catalogue covers, folders, letter and bill 
heads, statements, price-lists, discount sheets — these and 
many other office forms may be made to yield envelope 
stuffers as a by-product, simply by the exercise of a little 
ingenuity. 



The best method of utilizing this suggestion is to plan 
a series of stuffers in advance, writing the copy and having 
the illustrations made, if illustrations are to be included, so 
that you will always be prepared to take prompt advantage 
of any *' stuffer opportunities ** that may present themselves 
in connection with your printing. 



IMPORTANCE OF PROPER 
DISTRIBUTION 

You will also find it profitable to give careful thought 
and attention to the DISTRIBUTION of your envelope 
stuffers. It is not enough merely to get rid of them. They 

132 






OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

should be sent out systematically. If you have a series of 
them, it is important to know that each customer receives 
the series in proper order, not several copies of the same 
stuffer. 

The cheapness of this form of advertising is no excuse 
for sending it out in a slipshod, hit-or-miss manner. Envel- 
ope stuffers are less impressive and less important than 
your large circulars and booklets, but this is offset to some 
extent by the fact that many of them go out under first-class 
postage. They get preferred attention as compared with 
other forms of printed matter, and if properly designed and 
distributed they can be depended upon to produce substan- 
tial results. 

The foregoing suggestions are equally applicable to 
many other small advertising and office forms. Mailing 
Cards, Postal Cards, Package Inserts, Direction Slips, 
Labels, Stock and Work Tickets, Time Slips, are examples. 

TALK IT OVER WITH YOUR PRINTER 

Make a practice of taking the question up with your 
printer when placing orders or discussing specifications. 
Find out whether there will be any waste stock, and, if so, 
whether it can be printed before being trimmed off, without 
necessitating additional presswork. If there will be no 
waste, how about the possibility of ADDING one of these 
small forms to the original job, printing the two together 
on a single sheet at the same impression, and then cutting 
them apart? 

By asking these questions, whenever there seems to be 
any use of asking them, you will be able to take advantage 
of many money-saving and business-building opportunities 
which might otherwise be overlooked. 



133 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



MAILING CARDS 

Mailing Cards are simply advertisements printed on 
paper or cardboard thick enough to enable them to be 
mailed flat, without folding. 

The Postoffice Department does not publish (so far as 
we know) any restrictions as to their size, but it is of 
course obvious that a very large mailing card would be less 
effective than a folder the same size, besides being much 
more liable to breakage during transportation. 

Mailing Cards as large as 10 by 12 inches are not often 
seen; 7 by 10 or 7 by 11 inches is a much more practical 
size. This is about as large a card as can be mailed with 
any reasonable degree of assurance that it will be delivered 
flat and unbroken. 

Like folders, mailing cards may be printed either on one 
side or on both. Usually they are printed on one side only. 

Mailing Cards are not suitable for soliciting mail orders. 
They are used to best advantage where it is not the purpose 
of the advertising to induce prospects to take immediate 
action, as in " paving the way " for salesmen's calls. 



POST CARDS 

If Mailing Cards are made not larger than 3 9-16 by 
5 9-16 inches, nor smaller than 2^ by 4 inches, and divided 
on one side by a vertical line down the middle, WRITING 
may be placed in the space to the left of the vertical line 
(the right-hand space being reserved for address and stamp) 
without affecting the classification of the cards as third 
class matter. Such Mailing Cards are designated by the 
Postoffice Department as " Post Cards," and it is customary 
to print this designation on them. It is not advisable to 
order a large quantity of " Post Cards " without having a 
sample O. K.*d by your postmaster. 



134 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 






V 



On the follo\ving 
pages a number of 
novel and effective 
Direct Advertising 
forms are pictured 
and described. 



I3S 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



BROADSIDE FOLDER "WITH 
RETURN POSTAL 

(See illustration on opposite page.) 

Your proposition may not warrant the running of a 
page advertisement in a large newspaper, but you can read- 
ily place an advertisement of the same size before all the 
people on your mailing list by utilizing the folder form here 
illustrated. 

A full sheet of BUCKEYE COVER, even the smaller 
size, takes an advertisement the size of the average news- 
paper page, and large newspapers have themselves utilized 
this fact by reproducing page advertisements on BUCK- 
EYE COVER folders for mailing to their prospective cus- 
tomers. 

Where the mailing list is large enough to warrant a 
reasonable allowance for drawings, engravings and type- 
setting, a folder such as this is probably more effective, in 
proportion to its cost, than any other form of Direct Adver- 
tisement. If used on a small list, the cost per name would 
be high. 

The bottom fold, as illustrated, with slot for a return 
card, is, of course, optional, as also is the method of folding 
the sheet. A number of different methods, each requiring 
a different arrangement of the text and illustrations (if any) 
on the other side of the folder, will readily suggest them- 
selves when the dummy is being experimented with. 

In spite of its size, this folder, made of one of the lighter 
weights of BUCKEYE COVER, or other stock of similar 
weight, may be mailed for 1 cent. 



136 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



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Folder made of full sheet of BUCKEYE COVER, either 20 by 25 or 
22 by 28j/$ inches. Reply post card inserted in slot. Can be mailed for 
I cent 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



BROADSIDE FOLDER AA/'ITH 
RETURN POSTAL 

(See illustration on opposite page.) 

Your proposition may not warrant the running of a 
page advertisement in a large newspaper, but you can read- 
ily place an advertisement of the same size before all the 
people on your mailing list by utilizing the folder form here 
illustrated. 

A full sheet of BUCKEYE COVER, even the smaller 
size, takes an advertisement the size of the average news- 
paper page, and large newspapers have themselves utilized 
this fact by reproducing page advertisements on BUCK- 
EYE COVER folders for mailing to their prospective cus- 
tomers. 

Where the mailing list is large enough to warrant a 
reasonable allowance for drawings, engravings and type- 
setting, a folder such as this is probably more effective, in 
proportion to its cost, than any other form of Direct Adver- 
tisement. If used on a small list, the cost per name would 
be high. 

The bottom fold, as illustrated, with slot for a return 
card, is, of course, optional, as also is the method of folding 
the sheet. A number of different methods, each requiring 
a different arrangement of the text and illustrations (if any) 
on the other side of the folder, will readily suggest them- 
selves when the dummy is being experimented with. 

In spite of its size, this folder, made of one of the lighter 
weights of BUCKEYE COVER, or other stock of similar 
weight, may be mailed for 1 cent. 



136 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 






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Folder made of full sheet of BUCKEYE COVER, either 20 by 25 or 
22 by 28^ inches. Reply post card inserted in slot. Can be mailed for 
I cent 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



BIG MAILING PIECES FOR LITTLE 

MAILING LISTS 

An advertiser who is " working " a mailing list contain- 
ing many thousands of names — say from ten to twenty- 
five thousand — has one great advantage (among others) 
over the advertiser working a small list. 

The larger list makes it possible to use expensive draw- 
ings, engravings, color printing, etc., and so to achieve a 
degree of effectiveness that would be out of the question if 
only a few hundred names were to be circularized. 

If an advertiser proposes mailing a circular to a list of 
twenty-five thousand names, he can afford to spend a hun- 
dred dollars for engravings almost as readily as fifty, pro- 
vided the extra fifty dollars increases the effectiveness of 
the circular, for the difference is only a fraction of a cent 
per name. 

Reduce the list to five hundred names, however, and the 
" difference " would be TEN CENTS per name, which in 
many cases would be more than the advertiser could afford 
to spend for the complete circular. 

The advertiser circularizing a small list, as a rule, can 
not afford to get out Direct Advertisements that entail a 
high initial cost for drawings, engravings, typesetting, press 
make-ready, etc., yet the small advertiser, or the advertiser 
with a small list, wants to send out attractive advertise- 
ments. How can this be accomplished? 

One method of getting around the difficulty is shown in 
the accompanying illustration. 

Here the problem was to send out one hundred roto- 
gravure prints (left over from a large edition used for 
another purpose) to a select list of customers. A selling 
talk was to go with the picture, and it was necessary that 
the advertisement as a whole be attractive and impressive. 



138 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



It was out of the question to spend money for art work 
and engravings to be used on such a small number of 
copies, and even to set the advertisement in type would 
have been expensive. 

The advertisement as sent out was nevertheless both 
cheap and effective, and this was accomplished by the sim- 
ple expedient of printing the argument on a letter-head, 
tipping the letter and picture onto a sheet of heavy cover 
paper as shown, folding the cover paper once down the 
middle, printing a title on the outside at a cost of $1 for the 
edition, and mailing the folder flat in a large envelope. 




Background represents folder, lAli by 22 inches or 11 by 1454 inches, 
folded, made of double-thick BUCKEYE COVER. Imitation type- 
written letter tipped on left-hand page, picture tipped on right-hand 
page. 



139 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



»*,.«S«aiM^^:>'^- 




I 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



BIG MAILING PIECES FOR LITTLE 

MAILING LISTS 

An advertiser who is " working " a mailing list contain- 
ing many thousands of names — say from ten to twenty- 
five thousand — has one great advantage (among others) 
over the advertiser working a small list. 

The larger list makes it possible to use expensive draw- 
ings, engravings, color printing, etc., and so to achieve a 
degree of effectiveness that would be out of the question if 
only a few hundred names were to be circularized. 

If an advertiser proposes mailing a circular to a list of 
twenty-five thousand names, he can afford to spend a hun- 
dred dollars for engravings almost as readily as fifty, pro- 
vided the extra fifty dollars increases the effectiveness of 
the circular, for the difference is only a fraction of a cent 
per name. 

Reduce the list to five hundred names, however, and the 
" difference " would be TEN CENTS per name, which in 
many cases would be more than the advertiser could afford 
to spend for the complete circular. 

The advertiser circularizing a small list, as a rule, can 
not afford to get out Direct Advertisements that entail a 
high initial cost for drawings, engravings, typesetting, press 
make-ready, etc., yet the small advertiser, or the advertiser 
with a small list, wants to send out attractive advertise- 
ments. How can this be accomplished? 

One method of getting around the difficulty is shown in 
the accompanying illustration. 

Here the problem was to send out one hundred roto- 
gravure prints (left over from a large edition used for 
another purpose) to a select list of customers. A selling 
talk was to go with the picture, and it was necessary that 
the advertisement as a whole be attractive and impressive. 



138 



^^L * ^^ 



O F 



DIRECT ADVERTISING 



It was out of the question to spend money for art work 
and engravings to be used on such a small number of 
copies, and even to set the advertisement in type would 
have been expensive. 

The advertisement as sent out was nevertheless both 
cheap and effective, and this was accomplished by the sim- 
ple expedient of printing the argument on a letter-head, 
tipping the letter and picture onto a sheet of heavy cover 
paper as shown, folding the cover paper once down the 
middle, printing a title on the outside at a cost of $1 for the 
edition, and mailing the folder flat in a large envelope. 







Background represents folder, 14^ by 22 inches or 11 by 14^4 inches, 
folded, made of double-thick BUCKEYE COVER. Imitation type- 
written letter tipped on left-hand page, picture tipped on right-hand 
page. 



139 



i' \1 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



If H^ 1 





"BUTTERFLY" FOLDER 

(Sec illustration on opposite page.) 

This is a novelty folder that is comparatively expensive 
to manufacture, and that is not to be recommended for 
indiscriminate use. When used in the right way and at the 
right time, however, it makes a striking and effective adver- 
tisement. 

The essential feature of the folder is that when it is 
opened, a folded-in portion of the sheet springs up, project- 
ing above the body of the folder, and calling attention to 
whatever special device or information may be printed on 
the projection. 

A very small folder of this kind has been used effec- 
tively by the Underwood Typewriter Company, and a very 
large one, measuring ten or twelve inches square when 
folded, was recently gotten out by a Cleveland printer for 
a large manufacturing concern, the projecting fold being 
used to call attention to an exclusive feature of a pump. 

The white lines on the large figure shows the method 
of folding the sheet as well as it can be shown in an illus- 
tration. Any ingenious printer can readily work out the 
same idea in other forms. 

Stock suggested: BUCKEYE COVER, 
any finish, 20 x 25 — 65 and 22 x 28 J^ — 80. 



140 




, i 



PRINCIPLES AND 



PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 





**AUTO-LOCK" FOLDER W^ITH 
RETURN CARD 

(See illustration on opposite page.) 

The illustration shows a novel method of increasing the 
effectiveness of a common form of folder without adding 
materially to its cost. 

The folder consists of a double sheet, printed on one side 
only and folded as shown in the upper figure. 

The " lock " is a separate strip of paper, preferably of 
another color. One end of this is inserted between the 
open ends of the sheet after the vertical fold has been 
made; and the other end is tucked in (at the other side of 
the folder) after the two horizontal folds have been made. 

To open the folder, it is only necessary to pull up on 
one end of the locking strip. Until this strip is pulled, how- 
ever, the folder remains securely locked, no clips or pasters 
being necessary. 

The separate strip carries the address and the stamp, 
and if made of a paper the color of which contrasts strongly 
with the color of the folder, the effect is unusually novel 
and striking. 

The return card, if used, is inserted in slot as indicated. 
This card is, of course, optional. 

Stock suggested: For folder, BUCKEYE 
COVER, 20x25 — 65 and 22x28^ — 80, or 
20 X 25 — 80 and 22 x 2854 — 100. 

For the locking strip, BUCKEYE COVER, 
20 X 25 — 80 and 22 x 2Sy2 — 100. 



142 




*% 




PRINCIPLES 



AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



if 



' , 



Ir • i' 



BLOTTER CARRIER WITH ORDER 

BLANK BLOTTER 

On the page facing this are shown two simple and prac- 
tical methods of increasing the advertising efficiency of the 
blotter. 

The first concerns the method of sending it out, and is 
based on the fact that in many cases where a blotter is 
otherwise an excellent advertisement, it is too small to 
carry the necessary amount of selling talk. 

Here a folder is utilized, not only to provide additional 
space for the display of the advertiser's message, but also 
to provide a more effective vehicle than an envelope for 
carrying the blotter under one-cent postage. If the outside 
of the folder is attractively printed, it will make a dignified 
advertisement; whereas a blotter enclosed in an ordinary 
envelope simply looks like a cheap circular. 

The second illustration shows a method of still further 
increasing the efficiency of the blotter by including an 
order blank. Sending an order blank out in this way means 
that your prospective customer will have it constantly 
before him, as long as he keeps the blotter on his desk. 

The order blank may be wire stapled between two 
pieces of blotting-paper, or between a blotter and a piece 
of cover-paper carrying your advertisement. 

Stock suggested : For " Blotter Carrier " 
— BUCKEYE COVER, 20x25 — 65 and 
22x281^—80, 20x25 — 80 and 22x285^ — 
100. or Double Thick. Any color and finish. 



u 



^< 



i 



144 




PRINCIPLES 



AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



(( 



CATALOGUE" LETTER-HEAD 

(See illustration on opposite page.) 

Many firms print pictures and descriptions on the backs 
of their letter-heads. The plan is objectionable because 
only the printing is visible when the letter is folded, and is 
the first thing seen when it is taken from the envelope. 

A better way, and one coming into increasing favor, is 
to use a four-page sheet with the letter on the first page, 
and the pictures and printing on the inside pages. The 
last page is left blank, and the letter thus looks like a letter, 
and not like a circular, when the recipient gets it m his 
hand. 

Catalogue letter-heads are usually produced in quanti- 
ties for special circularizations, the first page being imita- 
tion-typewritten ; but in many lines it is also a good plan 
to stock the sheets with special offerings or announcements 
printed on the inside pages, and use the first page for regu- 
lar correspondence. 



N 



o 



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146 




li 



1 1 ■• ' 






K. 



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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



THE "OUTLOOK" LETTER 
CIRCULAR 

(See illustration on opposite page.) 

An exceedingly novel and effective method of combining 
a letter and folder for mailing under 1-cent postage. 

The letter, imitation-typewritten on an ordinary letter- 
head, with filled-in salutation, is inserted in the folder in 
the manner illustrated, the folder having a cut-out aperture 
which allows the salutation of the letter to serve as the 
address. 

Because of its novelty, the combination is a great deal 
more interesting and attention-compelling than either the 
letter or a folder of the same size would be if mailed sep- 
arately; while the cost of the complete piece, if BUCKEYE 
COVER is used for the folder, does not exceed that of a 
letter under 2-cent postage. 

To secure maximum effectiveness, the outside of the 
folder should carry a design illustrating or suggesting the 
product or business advertised, and incorporating a panel 
for the address aperture, making it a part of the illustration. 

The folder should be the same width as the letter-head 
to be used, and one-half longer. For a standard 8 x 11 
letter-head, the folder will be 8 x lej/i inches. 

No special dies are necessary in producing this piece. 
The rectangular opening can be cut with ordinary cutting 
rule on a platen printing-press. 

Stock recommended: For the folder, 
BUCKEYE COVER, basis 20 x 25 — 65 ; 
Plate Finish if half-tones are to be printed ; 
otherwise Antique or Ripple or Crash Fin- 
ish. For the letter-head, if for any reason 
a special one is required. Antique Finish 
BUCKEYE COVER, basis 20 x 25 — 50, 
and a different color from the stock used 
for the folder. 

T48 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 




PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



I 



»! 



MAILING SMALL SAMPLES 

(Sec illustration on opposite page.) 

Occasionally the simplest and cheapest article of its kind 
is the best, and this method of mailing small samples is as 
economical as it is effective. 

Mailed in this way, the sample is brought to the atten- 
tion of the prospect at the exact psychological moment — 
right after he has finished reading the printed story that 
leads up to it. 

The argument first, then the PROOF, all in one mailing 
piece. 

Sampling of this kind is much more effective than the 
ordinary method, and many firms have used it successfully 
who were unable to get adequate returns sending samples 
and arguments separately. 

The size and shape of the folder make no particular dif- 
ference. The only requirement is that it be folded at the 
bottom to retain the sample, and then folded again just 
above the sample. 

The illustrations were made with the clips on the first 
fold, because that was the only way the position of the 
sample could be shown, but it is better to put the clips on 
after the SECOND fold has been made. The folds fol- 
lowing the first two can be of any desired width, without 
reference to the size of the sample. 

Folders containing samples take the merchandise, or 
parcel post, rate, and 1 cent postage should therefore be 
affixed for every ounce or fraction thereof. 

Stock suggested: BUCKEYE COVER, 
any finish, basis 20 x 25 — 80, 22 x 2S% — 100, 
or Double Thick. 



ISO 



O F DIRECT ADVERTISING 



^4^ i > 




PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERT I S I N G 



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THE "OUTLOOK" AUTOMATIC 
REPLY FOLDER 

(See illustration on opposite page.) 

It is unfortunate that the idea of including a signed 
postal (signed with the name of the prospect) in a piece 
of circular matter has been promoted imtil it has become 
a fad, more or less profitable to the promoters, but not so 
profitable, in many cases, to the advertiser. 

The undue emphasis placed on this feature by the vari- 
ous concerns exploiting it has not only led many adver- 
tisers to use it where they should have used something 
else, but has also deterred many others from using it where 
it would have been exactly the right thing. 

No experienced advertising man believes or will admit 
that making it easy for the prospect to respond is the whole 
end and aim of successful direct advertising. Often it is 
more profitable to make sure that the prospect will NOT 
respond, unless he is seriously interested. But there are, 
nevertheless, many legitimate uses for the "automatic 
reply" featiu-e in circularizing, and the illustrations on 
the three following pages show the most practicable and 
satisfactory methods of incorporating it in attractive and 
effective folders or booklets. 

The principle in all of these is the same — the filling in 
of the prospect's name on the reply postal, and the inclu- 
sion of the postal in the folder in such a manner that the 
filled-in signature of the prospect will serve as the address 
when the folder is mailed by the advertiser. 

These folders are used to the best advantage, usually, 
where the returned postal is an order for merchandise (in 
which case the prospect should be required to pencil his 
initials beneath the typewritten signature), or where its 
return can .be taken as evidence that he has a real interest 
in the advertiser's goods or proposition. 

15a 




PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



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PRINCIPLES 



AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



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■}' 



CIRCULAR LETTERS 

Circular Letters, also called " Form Letters " are simply 
advertisements in letter form, which are sent in identical or 
nearly identical terms to a number of " prospects." 

Such letters may be typewritten, but as a rule they are 
produced by a mechanical process designed to imitate real 
typewriting as closely as possible. There are several of 
these "imitation typewriting" processes, and they vary 
considerably as to cost and quahty of work produced, but 
the principle of all is the same — the letters are printed 
from type, through a ribbon of silk or other material, which 
gives the text the " fabric " appearance that is characteristic 
of real typewriting. 

To be mailable at third-class (printed matter) rates, cir- 
cular letters must be produced by a mechanical process 
other than typewriting, and must be mailed twenty or more 
at a time. Salutations and signatures may be filled in by 
any desired method, and typographical errors may be cor- 
rected, but the letters as sent out must all read exactly 
alike. 

PREPARATION OF CIRCULAR LETTERS.— There 
are several books on the market which deal exclusively with 
the preparation of circular and form letters, and it would 
therefore be a work of supererogation to attempt to illumi- 
nate the subject in a few pages of the present volume. Such 

books are quite likely to be somewhat partisan, however 

they are likely to emphasize the merits of Circular Letters 
to the disadvantage of other forms of Direct Advertising — 
and it rnay therefore serve some advertisers to point out 
that while the Circular Letter offers an exceedingly eco- 
nomical method of circularizing a small list (say a thousand 
or two), it is often unnecessarily expensive when used in 
connection with a large list. 

COST OF CIRCULAR LETTERS.— See "What 
Should the Pieces Cost?" on page 27, and "Postage on 
Circular Letters " on page 159 for suggestions as to the cost 
of Circular Letters compared with printed circulars. 

156 



PRINTING METHODS 

A working knowledge of ordinary printing methods is 
a necessary part of the equipment of the advertising man, 
and of the advertiser handling his own work; but as this 
can be obtained readily in any printing establishment, it 
hardly calls for exposition in a book of Direct Advertising 
suggestions. 

There are other printing methods, however, which are 
less widely used, and while it is not necessary to understand 
these in detail, it is at least desirable to KNOW about them, 
and to recognize their possibilities. 

THE RUBBER OFFSET PROCESS is the most impor- 
tant of the rivals of ordinary printing, and both its popu- 
^ J larity and utility are growing steadily. Rubber offset 
printing differs from ordinary printing in several particu- 
lars,^ but principally in that the plate carrying the designs 
and \cxt does not print directly on the paper. It prints on 
a rubber roller, and the rubber roller transfers the impres- 
sion to the paper. 

The principal advantage of this process, so far as the 
advertiser is concerned, lies in the fact that it offers a means 
of printing half-tones on antique-finished and other rough 
papers. The process can also be utilized in the production 
of soft, sketchy color effects, such as are hardly obtainable 
by any other method, excepting possibly lithography, and 
for this reason it is used extensively for printing the covers 
of fine catalogues and booklets. 

Rubber offset printing can not be done from ordinary 
cuts and type. Special plates must be made — from proofs 
of type-matter, and from drawings, photographs, etc., of 
pictures and designs. 

In comparison with ordinary printing, rubber offset 
printing is more expensive for short runs, on account of the 
cost of the plates. It is less expensive for long runs, as the 
work is done much more rapidly. (See page 164.) 

157 



iii 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



LITHOGRAPHY is a process of printing from specially 
prepared stones instead of from metal plates. It is particu- 
larly adapted to the reproduction of pictures and designs in 
color — such as those seen on calendars, hangers, display 
cards, etc. In Direct Advertising it is utilized mainly in 
prmtmg multi-colored catalogue and booklet covers. 

EMBOSSING is a process of producing relief effects on 
paper by subjecting it to mechanical pressure between suit- 
able dies. It IS used principally on catalogue and booklet 
covers. For the best results the dies must be heated, and 
the process is then called " hot embossing." Covers which 
are embossed vinthout being printed are called "blind 
embossed." 

HOT STAMPING is merely a form of hot embossing, 
the effect of which is to " iron out " an antique or other 
rough-finished paper, producing a smooth surface on which 
half-tones or other plates with fine detail can be printed. 
The stamped or ironed portion of the paper is usually a 
rectangular panel or other geometrical shape that is to carry 
an il ustration. Sometimes the illustration is printed 
directly m the panel ; in other cases it may be printed on a 
separate sheet and " tipped in." 



POSTAGE ON DIRECT ADVERTISING 

According to postal regulations in effect at the time this 
book goes to press. Direct Advertising (printed) is classified 
as third-class matter, mailable at the rate of one cent for 
each two ounces or fraction thereof, when the individual 
pieces consist of less than twenty-four pages. Catalogues, 
Booklets and other pieces consisting of twenty-four pages 
or more, are classified as fourth-class (parcel post) matter. 
If they weigh eight ounces or less, they take a special rate 
of one cent for each two ounces, regardless of distance. If 
they weigh more than eight ounces, they take the regular 
parcel post zone rates. 

This applies to Catalogues, Booklets, Folders, Circulars, 
House Organs, Mailing Cards, and all other forms of printed 
advertisements which are not sealed against inspection, and 
which do not contain enclosures requiring a higher rate. 

If first or parcel-post matter is enclosed with a piece of 
third-class matter, the entire piece takes the higher rate, 
except that samples of merchandise affixed to circulars or 
other printed matter do not affect the classification of such 
matter as third-class mail so long as the samples occupy 
less than twenty per cent of the superficial area of the 
pieces to which they are affixed. When twenty per cent, 
or more of the space is occupied, the circulars or other 
printed matter to which the samples are affixed arc consid- 
ered parcel-post mail, and postage must be paid at the rates 
set forth in the Parcel Post regulations. 



158 



MAILING MERCHANDISE SAMPLES 

This ruling also applies to advertisements which arc 
printed wholly or in part ON THE MATERIAL ADVER- 
TISED, the Postoffice Department having ruled that the 
advertised material under such circumstances becomes 
A SAMPLE OF MERCHANDISE if it comprises 20 per 
cent or more of the superficial area of the advertisement. 
Under this ruling, paper sample-books and circulars (which 

159 



PRINCIPL ES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



i 



ir 



El 
f ! 






latter arc usually printed entirely on the paper advertised) 
are classified as parcel-post matter, regardless of their 
weight, although the same books and circulars, made of the 
same paper, but carrying the advertising of any other prod- 
uct, would be classified as set forth in the first paragraph 
on page 159. f & -f" 

When you receive samples or circular matter from paper 
manufacturers or dealers, therefore, it is well to bear in 
mmd that the postage on such pieces is often double what 
you would be required to pay if you were mailing similar 
pieces carrying your own advertisement. 

POSTAGE ON CIRCULAR LETTERS 

Letters arc regarded as printed matter, mailable at third- 
class rates, if produced by a mechanical process other than 

fnI?i7.?TV^''!^' provided twenty or more letters contain- 
ing identical text are mailed at one time. 

Individual salutations may be filled in with a typewriter 
the letters may be signed with pen and ink, and ty^ograS 
ical errors may be corrected with pen or pencil; but actual 
cnanges in the text which would make INDIVIDUAL 
commumcations of the letters are not permissible. What- 
ever corrections are made must be the same in every letter. 
Otherwise the letter would be classified as first-class matter 
and postage at the rate of 2 cents per ounce would have to 

While circular letters MAY be mailed under 1-cent post- 
oPthfsTri^^^^^^^^ " "^' ^^"^^^ ^^^^^^^^« '- '-^^ -^vanW 

The use of l-cent postage indicates unmistakably that 
the envelope contains a circular, not a personal letter and 
m many cases this is fatal to success. 

The common or garden variety of circular letter in an 
unsealed 1 -cent-stamped envelope is probably the cheapest 

m^ni:^..'".^ ''T i-P^^^^i-^^ of all Sie DirLt AdJerth^! 
ments that reach the average business office, and in many 

i6o 



if not most such offices they receive scant attention, or no 
attention at all. 

Entirely apart from the question of cheapness, more- 
over, there are certain kinds of advertisements which can 
pretty confidently be expected NOT to receive attention if 
they are readily identified as advertisements. 

Few men, for instance, buy life insurance on their own 
initiative, nor do they willingly read life insurance liter- 
ature, and it would therefore be a sheer waste of money to 
mail under 1-cent postage a series of letters the purpose of 
which was to sell life insurance. The life insurance com- 
pany's card on one corner of the envelope, together with 
the 1-cent stamp on the other corner, would identify the 
enclosure as an unwelcome solicitation to the man receiving 
it, and it simply would not be read. 



OVERCOMING INDIFFERENCE 

To overcome this indifference or hostility, many adver- 
tisers find it profitable to mail circular letters in sealed 
envelopes under first-class postage. This insures that the 
envelopes will be opened, and that the enclosed advertise- 
ments will be judged by their own appearance rather than 
by the implication of cheapness involved in the use of 1-cent 
postage. 

The 2-cent stamped circular letter, in other words, gets 
a chance to be " heard," which is all that any advertisement 
can claim. Having gained an audience because of its 
appearance, perhaps by masquerading as a personal com- 
munication, it will be read attentively enough if the intro- 
duction is interesting. 

On the other hand, if the people to whom a circular letter 
is mailed are known to be decidedly interested in the goods 
or service that the letter offers, very often nothing whatever 
will be gained by using first-class postage. 

If an advertiser, through some fortunate combination of 
circumstances, were in a position to offer an automobile 

i6i 



I 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT 



ADVERTISING 



I 



tire of standard make at half the regular price, the mere 
name and price, printed on the outside of the envelope, 
would be quite sufficient to insure the advertisement being 
read by the automobile owner. 



WHEN TO USE ONE-CENT STAMPS 

In general it is safe to conclude that a circular letter 
containing a strong appeal to the self-interest of the recip- 
ient, assuming, of course, that the substance of the appeal 
is set forth on the face of the envelope, will " pull " approx- 
imately as well with 1-cent postage as with 2-cent. 

Where the self-interest appeal is absent, or is not obvi- 
ous, greater returns will usually be obtained by using 2-cent 
postage. ** 

Whether the increased returns from the use of 2-cent 

postage will be PROFITABLE as compared with 1-cent 

postage depends somewhat upon the nature of the proposi- 

T\ 1 ' '"^^^^^5^ <^°st of the postage may more than 

offset the increased profit, but this does not occur often. 

Two other considerations that affect the determination 
of the proper postage for a circular letter are the standing 
of the advertiser and the character and circumstances of 
the people to whom the advertising is mailed. 

PPF^T^'Tr^^'f recognized standing may occasionally allow 
FKi^bTIGE to take the place of POSTAGE. A 1-cent- 
stamped circular bearing the imprint of Marshall Field & 
Co. could very reasonably be expected to command atten- 
tion where a similar circular from an unknown house might 
be thrown into the waste-basket unread. 

People who receive comparatively little mail matter are 
Z^h T^'V^^f^ to read and respond to circulars, and are 
much less likely to be influenced by their postal classifica- 
tion, than are people who receive a great deal of mail. 



162 



\^ 



SEALING THIRD-CLASS MATTER 

The rules of the Postoffice Department provide that 
advertising matter may be mailed at third-class rates only 
when it is open to inspection. 

Sealing, as such, is not prohibited, except when it inter- 
feres with adequate inspection. 

An ordinary envelope may not be sealed (if mailed under 
third-class postage), because it would be manifestly impos- 
sible for a postoffice employee to examine the contents with- 
out breaking the seal. 

A circular or folder carrying its own address may be 
sealed, even if it can not be unfolded without breaking the 
seal, provided it is possible for a postoffice inspector, by 
looking in at the ends of the folder or otherwise, to satisfy 
himself that it contains no writing or enclosures which 
would require a higher classification. 



GET THE POSTMASTER'S O. K. 

No hard and fast rule can be laid down that will apply 
to all cases. Some postoffice officials insist upon a strict 
application of the letter of the law, while others will pass 
circulars that are only partially open to inspection, assum- 
ing that the hidden parts are fairly represented by the vis- 
ible ones, or by an unsealed sample that has been submitted. 
When it is proposed to seal any kind of a folder or circular, 
therefore, it is important to get the O. K. of the local post- 
office officials before proceeding with the work. 

Where seals can be used without affecting the postage, 
they are preferable to clips, as the latter are apt to come off 
in the mails. Seals, moreover, give the pieces to which they 
are affixed a much more attractive appearance. 

Advertising matter mailed in any one of the various 
forms of ** Pennysaver ** envelopes can hardly be said to be 
sealed, and it is not so regarded by the Postoffice Depart- 
ment. The gummed flap which is characteristic of such 

163 






f 1' 



I.' 



PRINCIPLES AND P R A r T T r i. 



PM 1 



»■ 



I 




Rubber offset printing on BUCKEYE COVER*; Th. , i - 
aally adapted to the process and is widely used b^ff^^^ 

164 



Jf 



OF D IRECT ADVERTISING 

envelopes is designed to make the envelope APPEAR 
sealed, but it is, of course, open to inspection, just as the 
ordinary ungummed envelope is. 



METHODS OF PREPAYING 

POSTAGE 

Postage on Direct Advertising matter may be prepaid 
by any one of four methods : 

By using government-stamped envelopes or wrap- 
By affixing ordinary postage stamps. 
By affixing PRECANCELED postage stamps. 
4. By mailing under a " Special Permit." 

Stamped envelopes and wrappers are used by many 
advertisers, in some cases because of their convenience, and 
in others because it is thought they present a better appear- 
ance than ordinary envelopes and wrappers with separate 
stamps. Where a great many pieces of advertising are to 
be mailed, it is often possible to save considerable handling 
by using stamped envelopes or wrappers. Your postmaster 
can furnish you with a printed price-list. 



1. 

pers. 

2. 

3. 



ORDINARY STAMPS 

Ordinary postage stamps, like the popular orator, are so 
well known as to need neither introduction nor recommenda- 
tion. They are the method of postage prepayment that you 
will naturally use, unless the circumstances seem to call 
strongly for one of the others. Not all advertisers know 
that stamps can be bought in quantities at a discount, from 
stamp brokers. Make a note of it if it is news to you. 

165 



f 





OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



PRECANCELED STAMPS 

vJcntZ'i^ J^tt^^Sl "^P' "^- P*'*'^P^ ^he least con- 
vement pt all methods of prepay ng postaee Onat- th. 

precanceled stamps have been afKxed. howevei- the nieces 

JS2v'are*m J'^T"" °' ''1^^.""^ '" ^^e postoffice at which 
Scked IhT^ f„ ^"''"^ ^* '" ' ** advertiser has sorted and 
office? anTthU "*''*^^"'^ ^'*'* instructions from the post- 
omce;, and this is sometimes a decided advantacr*. ;,. tt. 

rollle1sThtdL''^'°^=*' °J attractive 'cTalofue" and 
being torn or abraded is greatly decreased "*""' 

SPECIAL PERMIT 

Mailing under a "Special Permit" eliminates the handling 
of postage stamps altogether, no stamps being require<f 
and IS the cheapest and most convenient method of nre- 

fnTrle'Sthi'es Th*'' "'''^''- "P'"^"^ wh^fe mailed 
in large quantities. The permit, issued by the oostmaster 

on request, allows the advertiser to printVYabel oJT each 



I 



2C.PAID 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

I Permit No. 96 

stam;s''"Tt^ *°-*''* °"* --eproduced here, instead of affixing 
stamps. The pieces are then counted and weiehed at th! 

fn ca°sf %Ws'm'::.'T"" °' ^"'''^^ ^^'^ toThTpostmasfe 
m cash. This method is not recommended for Direct ArlvlV 

"gTpne^Wrom T -^"^ --''^--''le pord^n o'tfr'sel I 
mg appeal from their attractiveness. It is not easv tn 

P^T^^^l ', 'I'^P ^°°^^ "'"'^ °» « f°Wer han a " Ipecia^ 
Permit labe . but most advertisers are agreed that it do« 
Special permits are not issued for less fhan 2 Joo pieces 

i6r> 



,^ 



(( 



SAFE AND SANE" TYPE-FACES 
FOR DIRECT ADVERTISING 

In the " Typography " section of this book, there have 
been set forth some objections to the use of fancy job 
types in Direct Advertisements, particularly catalogues and 
booklets. This naturally raises the question as to what sort 
of faces CAN be used advantageously. On the several 
pages that follow, the question is answered. 

Here are shown a number of type-faces which are first 
of all easy to read, thus fulfilling the most important 
requirement of the Direct Advertiser, and which at the 
same time are pleasing to the eye, whether of the expert 
or the non-expert. All of these faces have received the 
approval of the more progressive printers and advertisers, 
and each one of them has been recognized as a distinct 
achievement in artistic type-designing. 

The showing is not complete, but it is fairly representa- 
tive of the work of the foremost typefounders, and includes 
faces suitable for use in every kind of Direct Advertising. 
It is of course necessary to discriminate in making selec- 
tions even from this small assortment, since no one face is 
suitable for every kind of work. " Boldface " types, for 
example, are not suitable for the text of a catalogue or 
booklet, although occasionally they can be used effectively 
for the text of a large folder. 

When in doubt as to the face that you ought to use, you 
can hardly do better than select Caslon Oldstyle, which is 
shown on the pages immediately following this. Notwith- 
standing it was designed nearly two hundred years ago, it 
remains to-day, in the opinion of many printers and adver- 
tising men, including the writer of this book, the most 
beautiful and legible of all type-faces. In the larger sizes 
it makes an excellent display type. 

The following displays are not to be regarded as model 
catalogue or booklet pages. Their purpose is to show the 
types, not the method of using them. To use a type effec- 
tively, it must be adapted to the size and shape of the space 
it is to occupy, as has already been explained in the section 
devoted to " Typography." 

167 



PRINCIPLE S AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 







M^i 



BUCKEYE PREDOMINANCE 

The unprecedented demand for Buckeye 
Covers, which has made them the largest- 
selling brand of cover papers in the world, 
is of real and definite value to the cover- 
paper user; for this demand is a cause, as 
well as an effea, of the superior quality 
and utility which charaderize the line. 
Buckeye Covers are popular because they 
are profitable; and they are profitable to 
an unusual degree simply because quan- 
tity produdion has enabled us to give 
more for the money, in both paper and 
service, than would otherwise be possible. 
During the past year the leadership of 
Buckeye Covers has been steadily main- 
tained, and we have been able to demon- 
strate repeatedly and conclusively that 
every user benefits by this leadership. In 
reducing the price of our Double Thick 

18-point Caslon Oldstyle No. 471. (Hand-set.) 
Upper portion set loHd ; lower portion 2-point leaded. 

I68 



H 



> 



BUCKEYE PREDOMINANCE 

The unprecedented demand for Buckeye Covers, 
which has made them the largest-selling brand of 
cover papers in the world, is of real and definite 
value to the cover-paper user ; for this demand is a 
cause, as well as an effect, of the superior quality 
and utility which characterize the line. Buckeye 
Covers are popular because they are profitable; and 
they are profitable to an unusual degree simply be- 
cause quantity production has enabled us to give 
more for the money, in both paper and service, 
than would otherwise be possible. During the past 
year the leadership of Buckeye Covers has been 
steadily maintained, and we have been able to dem- 
onstrate repeatedly and conclusively that every user 
benefits by this leadership. In reducing the price 
of our Double Thick Buckeye Covers at a time 
when the general price-trend in the industry was 
upward ; in improving the texture of the entire line 
without increasing its price; in the preparation and 
publication of various forms of business-building 
suggestions; and particularly in arranging for the 
manufacture and distribution of Buckeye Cover 
Envelopes, we have been but sharing with our 
customers the saving resulting from the increased 

14-point Caslon Oldstyle No. 471. (Hand-set) 
Upper portion set solid ; lower portion 2-point leaded. 

169 



m 



*mpm^ 'it t mrnvm ,. , 



:^m^ 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



O F 



D 



IRECT ADVERTISING 



ii^|5^ 



() 



If" 



BUCKEYE PREDOMINANCE 

The unprecedented demand for Buckeye Covers, which 
has made them the largest-selling brand of cover papers 
in the world, is of real and definite value to the cover- 
paper user; for this demand is a cause, as well as an effect, 
of the superior quality and utility which characterize the 
line. Buckeye Covers are popular because they are profit- 
able; and they are profitable to an unusual degree simply 
because quantity production has enabled us to give more 
for the money, in both paper and service, than would 
otherwise be possible. During the past year the leader- 
ship of Buckeye Covers has been steadily maintained, and 
we have been able to demonstrate repeatedly and conclu- 
sively that every user benefits by this leadership. In 
reducing the price of our Double Thick Buckeye Covers 
at a time when the general price-trend in the industry was 

upward; in improving the texture of the entire line with- 
out increasing its price; in the preparation and publication 
of various forms of business-building suggestions; and 
particularly in arranging for the manufacture and distri- 
bution of Buckeye Cover Envelopes, we have been but 
sharing with our customers the saving resulting from the 
increased manufacturing and marketing efl^ciency that their 
generous patronage has helped us to achieve. The net 
result of this unique condition is that Buckeye Covers, in 
addition to being the easiest to buy of all high-grade 
cover papers, are also the easiest to use, for they are 
backed by a service that greatly facilitates satisfactory selec- 
tion and effective treatment. The i6 colors, 4 finishes and 

12-point Caalon Oklstylc No. 471. (Hand-set) 
Upper portion set solid ; lower portion 2-point leaded. 

170 



BUCKEYE PREDOMINANCE 

The unprecedented demand for Buckeye Covers, which 
has made them the largest-selHng brand of cover papers 
in the world, is of real and definite value to the cover- 
paper user; for this demand is a cause, as well as 
an effect, of the superior quality and utility which 
characterize the line. Buckeye Covers are popular 
became they are profitable; and they are profitable to 
an unusual degree simply because quantity production 
has enabled us to give more for the money, in both 
paper and service, than would otherwise be possible. 
During the past year the leadership of Buckeye Covers 
has been steadily maintained, and we have been able to 
demonstrate repeatedly and conclusively that every 
user benefits by this leadership. In reducing the price 
of our Double Thick Buckeye Covers at a time when 
the general price-trend in the industry was upward ; 
in improving the texture of the entire line without in- 
creasing its price ; in the preparation and publication 
of various forms of business-building suggestions; and 
particularly in arranging for the manufacture and 
distribution of Buckeye Cover Envelopes, we have been 
but sharing with our customers the saving resulting 
from the increased manufacturing and marketing effi- 
ciency that their generous patronage has helped us to 



14-point Bodoni Book. (Hand-set.) 

Upper portion set solid ; lower portion 2-point leaded. 

171 



**«.- 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 




t 



mn 



pit 1 1 



BUCKEYE COVER PREDOMINANCE 
The unprecedented demand for Buckeye Covers, which 
has made them the largest-selling brand of cover papers in 
the world, is of real and definite value to the cover-paper 
user; for this demand is a cause, as well as an effect, of 
the superior quality and utility which characterize the line. 
Buckeye Covers are popular because they are profitable; 
and they are profitable to an unusual degree simply because 
quantity production has enabled us to give more for the 
money, in both paper and service, than would otherwise be 
possible. During the past year the leadership of Buckeye 
Covers has been steadily maintained, and we have been 
able to demonstrate repeatedly and conclusively that every 
user benefits by this leadership. In reducing the price of 
our Double Thick Buckeye Covers at a time when the gen- 
eral price-trend in the industry was upward ; in improving 
the texture of the entire line without increasing its price ; 
in the preparation and publication of various forms of 
business-building suggestions; and particularly in arranging 
for the manufacture and distribution of Buckeye Cover En- 
velopes, we have been but sharing with our customers the 
saving resulting from the increased manufacturing and mar- 
keting efficiency that their generous patronage has helped 
us to achieve. The net result of this unique condition is 
that Buckeye Covers, in addition to being the easiest to 
BUY of all high-grade cover papers, are also the easiest to 
USE, for they are backed by a service that greatly facilitates 
satisfactory selection and effective treatment. The 16 colors, 
4 finishes and 4 weights make it easy to select a sheet exactly 

12-point Bodoni Book. (Hand-set) 

Upper portion set solid ; lower portion 2-point leaded. 

172 



M 



BUCKEYE PREDOMINANCE 

The unprecedented demand for Buckeye Covers, 
which has made them the largest- selling brand 
of cover papers in the world, is of real and definite 
value to the cover-paper user ; for this demand is 
a cause, as well as an efFecft, of the superior qual- 
ity and utility which charad:eri2,e the line. Buckeye 
Covers are popular because they are profitable; 
and they are profitable to an unusual degree simply 
because quantity production has enabled us to give 
more for the money, in both paper and service, 
than would otherwise be possible. During the 
past year the leadership of Buckeye Covers has 
been steadily maintained, and we have been able 
to demonstrate repeatedly and conclusively that 
every user benefits by this leadership. In reducing 
the price of our Double Thick Buckeye Covers 
at a time when the general price-trend in the in- 
dustry was upward ; in improving the texture of 
the entire line without increasing its price ; in the 
preparation and publication of various forms of 
business-building suggestions ; and particularly in 
arranging for the manufacture and distribution of 
Buckeye Cover Envelopes, we have been but shar- 
ing with our customers the saving resulting from 

18-point Kennerley. (Hand-set.) 

Upper portion set solid ; lower portion 2-point leaded. 

m 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTI SING 




HI 



BUCKEYE COVER PREDOMINANCE 
The unprecedented demand for Buckeye Covers, which has made 
them the largest-selling brand of cover papers in the world, is of 
real and definite value to the cover-paper user ; for this demand is a 
cause, as well as an effed:, of the superior quality and utility which 
characterize the line. Buckeye Covers are popular because they 
are profitable ; and they are profitable to an unusual degree simply 
because quantity produdtion has enabled us to give more for the 
money, in both paper and service, than would otherwise be possible. 
During the past year the leadership of Buckeye Covers has been 
steadily maintained, and we have been able to demonstrate repeat- 
edly and conclusively that every user benefits by this leadership. In 
reducing the price of our Double Thick Buckeye Covers at a time 
when the general price-trend in the industry was upward ; in im- 
proving the texture of the entire line without increasing its price ; 
in the preparation and publication of various forms of business- 
building suggestions • and particularly in arranging for the manufac- 
ture and distribution of Buckeye Cover Envelopes, we have been but 
sharing with our customers the saving resulting from the increased 
manufacituring and marketing efficiency that their generous patronage 
has helped us to achieve. The net result of this unique condition is 
that Buckeye Covers, in addition to being the easiest to buy of all 
high-grade cover papers, are also the easiest to use, for they are 
backed by a service that greatly facilitates satisfactory selection and 
effective treatment. The i6 colors, 4 finishes and 4 weights make 
it easy to seledt a sheet exactly adapted to the requirements of the 
job ; and these are displayed in the New Buckeye Cover Sample Book 
in such a way that all of the weights in each color can be instantly 
located and compared. The paper having been seledled, reference to 
The Buckeye Proofs will furnish invaluable suggestions as to the 
process that can be used to the best advantage. These "proofs" 
are not mere samples — they are reproductions of actual covers, and 
include unusual examples of hot embossing, rubber offset and photo- 
gravure work, as well as flat printing. If it is necessary to submit 

10-point Kennerley. (Hand-set.) 

Upp«r portion »et solid ; lower portion 2-point leaded. 

174 



BUCKEYE COVERS AN ASSET 
Unprecedented demand for Buckeye 
Covers, which has made them the 
largest selling brand of cover papers in 



14 Point Gaslon Bold 



COVER PREDOMINANCE 

The unprecedented demand for 
Buckeye Covers, has resulted 



18 Point Gaslon Bold 



BUCKEYE COVERS 

The demand for Buckeye 
Covers, which has made 



24 Point Gaslon Bold 



NEW BUCKEYE 

Covers T^^hich have 



30 Point Gaslon Bold 



17s 



'1 1 



P R I N C I P LES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



BUCKEYE COVER PREDOMINANCE 
The unprecedented demand for Buckeye 
Covers, which has made them the largest 
selling brand of cover papers in the world 



14 Point Cheltenham Bold 



BUCKEYE COVER PREDOMINANCE 
is an asset to every paper buyer. The 
unprecedented demand for Buckeye Covers 
has made them the largest selling brand 



14 Point Cheltenham Bold Italic 



*i 



I 



» 



pp> 



BUCKEYE COVERS AN ASSET 

The unprecedented demand for 
Buckeye Covers, which has made 



18 Point Cheltenham Bold 



THE UNPRECEDENTED 

demand for the Buckeye 
Covers has made them the 



24 Point Cheltenham Bold 



BUCKEYE COVERS 

Are popular because 



30 Point Cheltenham Bold 



176 



BUCKEYE PREDOMINANCE 
The unprecedented demand for 
Buckeye Covers, which has made 



^ 18 Point Cheltenham Bold Italic 



r < 



BUCKEYE COVERS AN 

asset to every paper buyer 
The demand for Buckeye 



24 Point Cheltenham Bold Italic 



UNPRECEDENTED 

demand for Buckeye 



30 Point Cheltv?nham Bold Italic 



177 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 



a 



1 



^1 



!! 




INDEX 



NOTE.— Index is arranged alphabeticaUy, except that contents of a 
few important sections, such as "Catalogues and Booklets" are listed in 
consecutive order under the proper headings, in addition to the alpha- 
betical hstmg. *^ 

PAGE 

Address Label on Folders j29 

Advertising a Form of Selling 5 

Advertising, Cost of, in Publications 13 

Analyzing your Problem 21 

Antique-finish Cover Papers jos 

Appeal, Finding the Point of 97 

Appeal, Importance of Making Specific 25 

Art, when not Good Salesmanship 72 

Atmosphere as a Selling Factor 51 

Auto-Lock Folder with Return Card 142-3 

Automobile Catalogues, Buckeye Cover used for. ............... 43 

Automobile Parts, Advertising to Automobile Buyers . .............. 22 

Back Cover in Catalogues and Booklets, Selling Possibilities of 112 

Bases, Patent, for Electrotypes '51 

Beckett Paper Company, The, Mill of 40-50 

Ben Day Color Work 53 

Ben Day Process 47 

Ben Day Shading Mediums 45 

Ben Day Tints on Covers io3-4 

Binding Catalogues and Booklets ..................[... 114 

BINDING STYLES. 

Loose-Leaf Catalogues 1 1 k 

Saddle Stitching '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.". 114 

Sewing " U5 

Side Stitching H5 

Bird's-eye Views, How Made 37 

Blotter Carrier with Order Blank Blotter i44-5 

Blue-prints, Wash-drawings from 35 

Board Covers on Catalogues and Booklets no 

Bodoni Tjrpe i71-2 

Boldface Type, use of 7g 



178 



PAGE 

Boldface Type, examples of 175-177 

Booklets, see ^'Catalogues and Booklets." 

Books about House Organs 124 

Books about Circular Letters 156 

Borders, Decorative 85-6 

Borders, Pictorial 86 

Bread Recipe Books, to Sell Yeast 23 

Broadside Folder 136-7 

See also ''Folders and Broadsides." 

BUCKEYE COVER. 

Advertisement 188-189 

Folders and Broadsides 126 

Envelopes 120 

Embossing on 71 

Offset Printing on 164 

Printed from Line Engravings 64 

Sales as a Gmde to Paper Selection 107 

Used in this Book 4 

Buildings, Illustrated Before Erection 36 

Building Materials and Equipment, Advertised to Home Builders 22 

Bumislung Half-tone Plates 39 

"Butterfly" Folder 140-1 

Business Magazines, Cost of Advertising in 13 

CAMPAIGN, Planning the 21 

Analyzing your Problem 21 

Selecting your "Prospects" 22 

Direct Advertising and Indirect Selling 22 

Preparing tiie Mailing List 23 

Determining the Character of the Appeal 24 

What Kind of Pieces 26 

How many Pieces 26 

What should the Pieces Cost 27 

Capitals, Use of 77 

Cord, Silk 115 

Carpet, Illustrating 49 

Caslon Old Style Type 168-170 

Caslon Bold Type 175 

Catalogue Letterhead 146-7 

CATALOGUES AND BOOKLETS. 

Definition 87 

Planning the Catalogue 87 

Sizes, How Determined 88 

Sizes, How Affected by Illustrations 90 

When the Catalogue is Overweight 90 

Allowing for Ink and Paper 91 

Specimen Pages, Use of 92 

Selecting the Paper 92 

How to use the Dummy 93 

179 



/^w^ 



ll 







PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



PAGB 

Laying Out and Making Up 93 

The "Center Spread" 96 

Should the Factory be Advertised 96 

The Cover 99 

Detailed Cover suggestions Indexed under " Covers." 

Binding Styles 114 

Detailed Binding suggestions Indexed under "Binding." 

Center Spread in Catalogues and Booklets 96 

Charcoal Drawings, Engravings from 37 

Cheltenham Bold Type 176 

Cheltenham Bold Italic Type 177 

Circulars, Cost of 14 and 27 

Circular Letters 156 

City Directories, Getting Names From 24 

Class Publications 12 

Coated Paper 45 

Collar Button, Size of Booklet for 90 

Colored Papers, How they Save Printing 102 

Color, Use of as Emphasis 78 

Commercial Agency Reference Books, Getting Names from 24 

Competition, Importance of Recognizing 21 

Composition, Linotype, Monotype and Hand 79 

Concrete Construction, Advertising to Sell Cement 23 

Condensed Type 74-5 

Copyright Notice 2 

Copywriting, Hints on 65 

Copy writing, for Catalogues and Booklets 88 

Cost of Direct Advertising Pieces 27 

Cost, Lowest, of Circulars 28 

Cover Designs for Folders 129 

COVERS, for Catalogues and Booklets 99 

"Introducing the Salesman" 99 

How Covers Can Help Sales 100 

Cover must "Say Something" 101 

Making the Sketch 101 

How Paper Saves Printing 102 

Make Sketch on Right Paper 103 

Cover Designs from Type 103-4 

Selecting the Cover Paper 105 

Avoiding Costly Mistakes 105 

Paying More and Getting Less 106 

Finding the Right Cover 106 

When the Paper must be Selected First 107 

What our Records Show 107 

"Antique Finish" Made by many Mills 108 

COVER STYLES 108 

Integral Covers 108 

Flush Trimmed Covers 108 

Extension Covers 109 

i8o 



^ 



-< 



#ff^; 




OF D I RECT ADVERTISING 

PAGE 

Secondary Covers HO 

Board Covers HO 

Flexible Leather Covers HO 

Lining and End Sheets HI 

Selling Possibilities of the Back Cover H2 

Crash Fim'sh Buckeye Cover 106 

Crayon Drawings, Engravings From 37 

DRAWINGS AND ENGRAVINGS 30 

Half-tone Process, The 30 

For Detailed Index, See " Half-Tone." 

Line Engravings 46 

For Detailed Index, see "Line-Engravings." 

Woodcuts 54 

Sizes of Drawings 57 

Scaling a Drawing 58 

Instructions to the Engraver 59 

Electrotjrpes 60 

For Detailed Index, see "Electrotypes." 

Decorative Borders 85 

Decorative Treatment of Catalogue Pages 94 

Descriptions of Product not Always Good Advertising 25 

Designs, Cover, from Type 103 

Directories, Making Up Mailing Lists from 24 

Display in Advertising 78 

Druggist, Problem of the Local H 

Dull-coated Papers 45 

Dummies, How to Use ^3 

Dummies, Unprinted, Choosing Paper from 106 

Duographs 42 

Duotypes 42 

Electric Flatirons, Where Sold H 

Electric Devices, Sold at Cost 23 

ELECTROTYPES 60 

Lead Moulded 60 

Nickeltypes 60 

Motmting 61 

Patent Bases 61 

How Electrotypes Cut Printing Costs 62 

Soldering Rule Joints 63 

Emphasis, How to Secure in Print 77 

End Sheets in Catalogues and Booklets HI 

Envelope Stuffers 131 

Envelopes, For Mailing Catalogues and Booklets 120-121 

Envelopes, Pennysaver 163 

Envelopes, Stamped 165 

Engraver, Instructions to 59 

Engravings, see "Drawings and Engravings." 

Extended Type 74-5 

i8i 



V ^. 



.^ mMM Ha ^ l ii' '' 



il 



I 



m\ 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



PAGE 

Extension Covers, on Catalogues and Booklets 109 

Factory, The, Featuring 70 and 96 

Factory, The, Taking to Customer. 122 

Fleischmann Yeast Co. Bread Recipe Booklet 23 

Flexible Leather Covers, on Catalogues and Booklets 110 

Floss, Silk, For Binding 115 

Flush Trimmed Covers 108 

FOLDERS AND BROADSIDES 125 

Large Folders 125 

Small Folders 127 

Design and Arrangement 128 

Return Post Cards 130 

Envelope Stuffers 131 

FOLDER SUGGESTIONS. 

Broadside Folder With Return Postal 136-7 

Big Mailing Pieces for Little Lists 138-9 

Butterfly Folder 140-1 

Auto-lock Folder 142-3 

Blotter Carrier With Order Blank Blotter 144-5 

Catalogue Letter-head 146-147 

Outlook Letter Circular 148-9 

Mailing Small Samples 150-1 

Automatic Reply Folders 152-5 

Four-color Process Plates 40 

Garter, Size of Booklet For 90 

General Advertising, Physical Limitations of 12 

General Advertising, Compared with Direct Advertising 13 

Good Will, Importance of 122 

HALF-TONE PROCESS, THE 30 

Fine and Coarse Half-tones 32 

Illustration Showing Half-tone Screens 33 

Best Screen for Miscellaneous Uses 34 

Examples of Outlines and Square Finished Half-tones 34 

Copies Half-tones can be made from 35 

High-light Half-tone from Pencil Drawing 36 

Half-tone from Wash Drawing 36 

Limitation of the Half-tone Illustrated 38 

Process Plates 40 

Duotypes 42 

Duographs 42 

Reversed Half-tones 42 

Finishing the Half-tone 44 

Printing the Half-tone 44 

Coated and Dull-coated Papers 45 

Hand Composition 79 

Hand Lettering 80 

High-light Half-tone 36 

Hot Stampmg 46, 157 

182 



O F 



DIRECT ADVERTISING 




PAGB 

HOUSE ORGANS \l\ 

Definition of {5, 

Making Interesting f;J 

High Mortality Among J*T 

Regularity Essential Jj* 

Syndicate 1 24 

Books About 

Illustrations, see "Drawings and Engravings." 

Illustrations, How They Affect Page Sizes w 

Impressionism in Commercial Illustrations ^^ 

Indifference of Reader, How to Capitalize jo 

Index, in Catalogues and Booklets JJ* 

Information Blanks * J^ 

Ink, Allowance for Weight of ^J 

Inserts, Package, from Waste Stock "f 

Insurance, Life, How Sold j| 

Integral Covers *"° 

Italics, Use of 

Job Types, Fancy, Objections to ^^-3 

Justification, see "Hand Composition." 

Kenneriey Type ^^^I^ 

Kerosene, Enlarging Market for ^^ 

Labels, Address, on Folders J29 

Labels, from Waste Stock ^J-J 

Laying out a Catalogue or Booklet ^ 

Lead Moulded Electros 9}J 

Leather Covers, Flexible ^i" 

LegibUity of Type Matter ■ J^ 

Letter-circular, Outlook JJfT 

Letter-head, Catalogue **^ 

Lettering, Hand XX 

Letters, Circular, Cost of ;? 

Life Insurance, How Sold ^^ 

LINE-ENGRAVINGS ^ 

Ben Day Patterns T^ 

Ben Day Process *' 

Stipple Drawing *® 

When Lhie-engravings Are Expensive *^ 

"Atmosphere" in Line-engravings 51 

Colorwork and Tint-blocks ^ 

Printing I* 

Reversing - , , 

Lining Sheets, in Catalogues and Booklets *" 

Linotype Composition JJ 

Lists, MaUing, How Secured i^ 

Lists, Small, Big Mailing Pieces for J|2 

Lithography 

183 



if 



ii 



PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



PAGE 

Loose Leaf Catalogues 115-16 

Lyon & Healy, Booklet Used by 113 

Machinery Catalogue, Cover for 99 

Mailing Catalogues or Booklets without Envelopes 112 

Mailing Cards I34 

Mailing Cards from Waste Stock 133 

Mailing Envelopes ' ' 120 

Mailing Folders, Address Labels 129 

Mailing List, Preparation of 23 

Mailing Merchandise Samples * . . * 159 

Mailing, Methods of Prepaying Postage , 165 

Mail Order Catalogues 8, 37 

Make-up, Effective, for Catalogue 95 

Making up a Catalogue or Booklet 93 

Monotype Composition 79 

Motmting Electrotypes 51 

Names of Prospects, Sources of 24 

Nickeltypes ] [ 50 

Objective Advertising 70 

Offset Process, Rubber 157 

Oil Paintings, Half-tones from 37 

Order Blank Blotter ' i44-5 

Order Blanks i9, 112 

Order, Making it Easy to 19 

Original Plates, Printing from 62 

Outlined Half-tone 44 

Outlook Automatic Reply Folder i52-3 

Outlook Letter-circular 148-9 

Outside Viewpoint, Getting the 97 

Overweight, when Catalogue is 90 

Packard Motor Car Catalogue 116 

Package Inserts from Waste Stock 133 

Paper, Catalogue, Selecting 92 

Paper, Colored, how Saves Printing ,, , 102 

Paper, Cover, Selecting io5 

Paper, Half-tone 45 

Paper, Samples, Postage on 159 

Paper, Sizes, Stock and Special 118 

Paper, Waste, Utilizing * ] . . * ii8-19 

Paper, Weight of. Variation in [[_ 91 

Parcel Post 159 

Pasted-down End Sheets Ill 

Patent Bases for Electrotypes 61 

Planning the Campaign, see "Campaign." 

Pencil Drawings, Engravings from 37 

Pennysaver Envelopes, Postage on 163 

Permit, Special, Mailing under [[ , I66 

184 




V 



OF DIRECT ADVERTISING 

PAGE 

Photographs, Retouched and Unretouched 35 

Photographs, sizes to make |j 

Photography, Limitations of • • • |* 

Pianos, how Illustrated Jo 

Pianos, Size of Catalogue for Jj 

Postage {2; 

Postage on Circular Letters J?" 

Postage, Free, on Direct Advertising l|* 

Postage, Minimum, on Direct Advertising 27 

Postage, on "Overweight" Catalogues w 

Postage, Prepayment, Methods of JJJ 

Postage, When Not Affected by Sealing J03 

Post Cards Jf? 

Post Cards, Return • • Jf" 

Post Cards, in Catalogues and Booklets n^i J J^ 

Post Cards, in Sheets \\^ 

Post Cards, from Waste Stock "J 

Postmaster, Getting His O. K *^ 

Preliminary Sketches J^ 

Prepaying Postage, Methods of ^J^ 

Process Plates ?" 

Proofs, in Making Up Dummies Jz 

Proofs, Selecting Covers from *"^ 

Prospects, Selecting Your jt 

Precanceled Stamps *?? 

Printing Costs, How Cut by Electrotypes Vt 

Printing Costs, How Cut by Colored Papers 102 

Printing Establishments in America ^ 

Printing Half-tones ** 

Printing Line-engravings rj 

Printing Methods •.;••: *Ji 

Printing Trade Publications, Cost of Advertismg m 1* 

Printing Woodcuts Jc 

Publishers, Why They Use Direct Advertismg as 

ReadabiUty of Direct Advertising, see "Typography." • 

Return Post Cards • :;; "" 

Return Post Cards in Catalogues and Booklets ^o ii 

Reversed Half-tones • • • -^^J Jf 

Reversed Line Engravings ^*» ^^' fZ 

Rubber Offset Printing Process \^[ 

Rule Borders, on Catalogues Covers JJJ;» 

Rule Borders, on Crash Finish Buckeye Cover i^o 

Rule Borders, Soldering Joints when Electrotyping 03 

Saddle-stitched Catalogues and Booklets 1}* 

Sale, Clinching the .JZ 

Sales, How Covers Help ^^ 

Salesman, Folder Suggesting Call of ^ 

Salesman, Introducing the Printed ^^ 

185 



I 



,•*«:- -■!.0mg. 



Hi |il 










I 





PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 



PAGE 

Samples, Sent with Catalogues or Booklets 112 

Scaling a Drawing 58 

Screens, Half-tone 32, 33, 34 

SeaUng Third-class MaH Matter 163 

Secondary Covers on Catalogues and Booklets 110 

Secrecy of Direct Advertising 19 

Selling Costs, How Small Folders Cut 127 

Selling Goods Before Showing Them 12 

Selling, Importance of Right Appeal in 24 

Selling, Indirect 22 

Selling Low-priced Articles by Mail 26 

Sewing Catalogues and Booklets 115 

Shading, Ben Day Method 46, 47 

Side Lines as Business Stimulators 23 

Side Stitching 115 

Silk Cord or Floss 115 

Sizes, Catalogue and Booldet 88 

Sketches, Cover 101, 103 

Sketches, Preliminary, in Dimimies 95 

Sketches, Wash-drawings from 36 

Spacing, Typographic 76 

Special Permit, Mailing Under 166 

Specialization in Industry, Direct Advertising a Result of 9 

Specimen Pages, Type 167-177 

Spread, Center, in Catalogues 96 

Square Half-tones 45 

Stamps, Buying at Discount 164 

Stamps, Precanceled 166 

Stamping, Hot 46, 158 

Standard Oil Company, Why Sells Lamps 23 

Stitching, Saddle 114 

Stitching, Side 115 

Stock Tickets from Waste Stock 133 

StufiFers, Envelope 131 

S]mdicate House Organs 124 

Technical Publications 12 

Telephone Directories, Names from 24 

Three-color Process Plates 40 

Tiffany Blue Book, not Illustrated 87 

Time Slips from Waste Stock 133 

Tint Plates 53 

Tints, Ben Day, on Covers 103, 104 

Toilet Article Booklet, Cover for 99 

Tooling Half-tone Plates 39 

Trade Directories, Names from 24 

Trimming Catalogues to cut Postage 91 

Trimming Covers Flush 108 

Two-color Process Plates 40 

Type, Adapting to Space 74 

i86 




X 



O F DIRECT ADVERTISING 

PAGB 

Type-faces, Popular l^J 

Type-forms, Electrotyping JJ 

TYPOGRAPHY Jf 

Avoid Fancy Job Faces 73 

Adapting Type to Space J* 

Proper Arrangement JJ 

Don't Use Small Type Jj 

•'Keeping the Reader Going" • • J; 

Capitalizmg Reader's Indifference 70 

How Not to Use Spaces Jo 

Italics and Capitals jj 

Underscoring 44 

Boldface ^ 

Color as Emphasis Jj 

Display 4; 

Methods of Setting Type 79 

Underscoring, in Typography ^ 

Vignetted Half-tone J* 

Wall Paper, Illustrating *J 

Wash Drawings, Half-tones from • • • JO 

Waste Cover Paper, Utilization of ' } J? 

Waste Presswork, Utilization of 1^2 

See also "Envelope Stuffers." 

Water Color Paintings, Half-tones from 37 

Woodcuts ,5; 

Work Tickets, from Waste Stock J33 

Wrappers, Stamped, for Mailing 1<>* 

Zinc Etchings, see "Line-engravings." 



187 



11 



II 



The Standard 
Medium for 
Direct Advertising 

(An Advertisement) 

In Direct Advertising by mail, as in Gen- 
eral Advertising, the efficiency of a cam- 
paign is determined largely by the character 
of the mediums used. 

You must use the right papers if your 
selling message is to be carried to your 
prospective customers effectively and eco- 
nomically, whether you are buying " space " 
of a publisher or a printer. 

And just as you can instantly recognize cer- 
tain of these " right " papers, in the General 
field, from the fact that they have already 
won the approval and patronage of the most 
successful advertisers, so you can, in the 
same way and with almost equal readiness, 
find the right papers for your Direct Ad' 
vertising, 

A brief examination of any representative 
collection of up-to-date Catalogues, Book- 
lets, Folders, etc., will show you that in this 
class of advertising the predominant papers 
are BUCKEYE COVERS. 

BUCKEYE CO VERS,"The Standard Cover 
Papers for Economically Effective Business 



V 



Literature," are the largest-selling brand of 
covers in the world. They are used oftener 
than any other because they can be used 
more profitably than any other. 

The saving due to quantity production is 
greater in the paper business than in any 
other of which we know ; and the enormous 
demand for BUCKEYE COVERS, as a con- 
sequence, has enabled us to produce a paper 
that no other maker has ever been able to 
match, at anywhere near the price. 

BUCKEYE COVERS are the only high- 
grade cover papers that are used exten- 
sively by the large mail-order houses. 

They are also the only "cheap" cover papers 
that are used extensively in the manufacture 
of high-grade Catalogues and Booklets. 

The price, on the one hand, is low enough 
to make them attractive to those advertisers 
who must keep their costs down. 

The quality, on the other hand, is high 
enough to make them attractive to those 
advertisers who want the most effective 
printed matter they can get, regardless of 
its cost. 

The value represented by this unique com- 
bination of high quality and moderate price, 
is the reason why you, too, should use 
BUCKEYE COVERS for your Direct 
Advertising. 



'^' 



i88 



189 



I:' 



I 



LET OUR REPRESENTATIVE 

HELP YOU 

Somewhere near you — probably in your own city — 
there is a dealer who sells BUCKEYE COVERS. He is a 
good man to know. He can help you to make sure that you 
get full value for the money you invest in Direct Adver- 
tising. 

He can do this by cooperating with your printer. Put 
your PRINTING problems up to a printer who is in the 
habit of putting his PAPER problems up to a Buckeye 
Cover dealer, and you will have done about all that is 
humanly possible in the way of guarding against unsatis- 
factory service. 

Printers and their customers find cooperation with 
Buckeye Cover dealers profitable, not alone because these 
dealers sell Buckeye Covers, but because each one of them 
is the representative paper merchant in his territory, who 
has the necessary equipment, the necessary stock and the 
necessary experience to serve every customer promptly and 
adequately. 

Your printer can give more for the money you pay him, 
and at the same time get more for his own work, by taking 
advantage of the service offered by the nearest Buckeye 
Cover dealer, as well as of the very unusual quality and 
value that we have put into BUCKEYE COVERS them- 
selves. 

THE BECKETT PAPER COMPANY 

MAKERS OF GOOD PAPER 
in Hamilton, Ohio, since 1848 



190 




,;r-1" 






BUCKEYE COVER DEALERS 



BALTIMORE 

BIRMINGHAM 

BOSTON 

BUFFALO 

CALGARY 

CHICAGO 



CINONNATI 



CLEVELAND 

COLUMBUS 
DALLAS 

DAYTON 

DETROIT 

DESMQINES 

DENVER 

EDMONTON 

GRAND RAPIDS 

HOUSTON 

INDIANAPOLIS 

KANSAS CITY 

UNCOLN 

UTTLE ROCK 

LOS ANGELES 

LOUISVILLE 

MEMPHIS 

MIDDLETOWN, 



South, DizoB CompuV) DiriMon 

The Whitkker Pkper Co. 

The Arnold-Roberts Co. 

The Ailing & Cory Co. 

John Martin Paper Co., Ltd. 
fJ.W. Butler ftper Co. 

Jtmes White P4>er Co. 

The Chmtfield, & Woods Co. 

The Cin'ti Cordage tc Paper Co. 

The Diem & Wing Pkper Co. 

The Whitdcef Paper Co. 
fThe Central Ohio Paper Co. 
IThe Union Paper and Twine Co. 

The Central Ohio Paper Co. 

Southwestern Pkper Co. 
fGndnnati Cord^ & Paper Co. 
iThe Keogh & Rike Paper Co. 

The Union Paper & Twine Co. 

The Carpenter Paper Co. 

The Peters Pkper Co. 

John Martin Paper Co., Ltd. 

Central Michigan Paper Co. 

Soathwestem P)^>cr Co. 

{Indiana Paper Co. 
C. P. Lesh Pftper Cow 
Graham Paper Co. 
Lincoln Paper Co. 
Western Newspaper Union 
Zellerbach Psper Co. 
Louisville Psper Co. 
Tayloe Paper Co. 
O. The Ssbin Robbins Paper Co. 



MILWAUKEE 

MINNEAPOUS 
MONTREAL 
NASHVILLE 
NEW ORLEANS 
NEW YORK 
OAKLAND 



{The E. A. Bouer Co. 
(Standard Paper Co. 

McCIellan Piper Co. 

Federal Paper Co., Ltd. 

Graham Paper Co. 

E~ C. Palmer & Co. 

Henry Lindenmejrr & Sons. 

Zellerbach Paper Co. 



OKLAHOMA CITY Western Newspaper Union 



OMAHA. 
PHILADELPHIA 

PITTSBURGH 

PORTLAND, ORE, 

RICHMOND, VA. 

ROCHESTER 

ST. LOUIS 

ST. PAUL 

SALT LAKE CITY 

SAN FRANCISCO 

SEATTLE 

SIOUX CITY 

SPOKANE 

SPRINGFIELD, 

MASS. 
TOLEDO 
TORONTO 
WICHITA 
WINNIPEG 



Carpenter Paper Co. 
Garrctt-Buctuuian Co. 

{The Ailing & Cory Co. 
The Chacfield & Woods Co. 

Pacific Paper Co. 

Richmond Paper Co., Inc. 

The Ailing & Cory Co. 

Graham Paper Co. * 

Wright, Barrett & Stilwell Co. 

Carrier Paper Co. of Uuh 

Zellerbach Pkper Co. 

Richmond Paper Co. 

Western Newspaper Union 

American Typ*' Founders Co. 
/The Paper House of 
I New EngUnd 

The Central Ohio Paper Co. 

The Wilson-Monroe Co., Ltd. 

Western Newspaper Union. 

John Martin Paper Co., Ltd. 



FOREIGN SELLING AGENTS 
Henry IJndenmeyr te Sons, London, England 



THE BECKETT PAPER CO. 

MAKERS OF GOOD PAPER 

IN HAMILTON, OHIO, SINCE 1848 



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made only by 

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20x25.65— 21 X2S4.80 



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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 





0041419197 



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MAY 2 01994 



NEH 



JUN 19 1926 



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TITLE